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Green Revolution
a large increase in crop production in developing countries achieved by the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yield crop varieties. Golden rice, Dwarf Wheat, GMOs etc
a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. Like Polio, Small Pox, Measles, etc
Poverty-based diseases
Malaria, Tuberculosis, Cholera and other diseases largely wiped out in the developed world
1918 Influenza epidemic
was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus. It infected 500 million people around the world, including people on remote Pacific islands and in the Arctic, and resulted in the deaths of 50 to 100 million (three to five percent of the world's population), making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history.
Opposition to Colonial Rule
Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969), Jomo Kenyatta (1894–1978), and Kwame Nkrumah (1909–1972) had which of the following in common?
Invaded Ethiopia
In 1935, Mussolini took advantage of the weakness of the Western democracies and
One of the fiercest battles on the Eastern front between USSR and Germany and a key turning point in the war was at
Parliamentary government
What do Israel, India, and Canada have in common1'
Eastern Pakistan
Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation in 1971 from
Prague Spring
Of the following, which represents a challenge to superpower domination by a smaller nation during the Cold War?
New Deal
Franklin D. Roosevelt's economic recovery plan was called the
Most of the leaders of African independence movements were:
South African governments used policies of racial segregation called
Warsaw Pact
In response to the United States and western Europe creating NATO, the USSR created
Mao Zedong and Mohandas Gandhi both appealed to which of the following as a base of support?
Non-aligned nations
Those nations that openly stated they did not want to be on either side in the Cold War were called
Which of the following is not one of the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council?
state of Kashmir
In 1947 India and Pakistan went to war over the
Fatal sexually transmitted disease that has infected millions in Africa and around the world
Diseases from longer lifestyles
Diabetes, Heart Disease, Alzheimer’s disease and other diseases that increase with longer life expediencies and an abundance of food
Birth Control
Condoms, the pill etc. to give people more control in family planning
Indian National Congress
Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. From the late 19th century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement. Congress led India to independence from Great Britain
Ho Chi Minh
Leader who wanted an independent and united Vietnam who turned to communism
Kwame Nkrumah
was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast to independence from Britain in 1957.
Muslim League
was a political party established in 1906 in the British Indian Empire. Its strong advocacy for the establishment of a separate Muslim-majority nation-state, Pakistan, successfully led to the partition of British India in 1947 by the British Empire.
Several diverse political groups coalesced in the late 1960s in the formation of the Parti Québécois, a provincial political party. Since 1968 the party has appealed for constitutional negotiations on the matter of provincial sovereignty, in addition to holding two provincial referendums on the matter. The first, which occurred in 1980, asked whether Quebecers wished to open constitutional negotiations with the federal government (and other provinces) for the intended purpose of establishing a "sovereignty-association" pact between the province of Quebec and the rest of Canada
was a state in West Africa which existed from 30 May 1967 to January 1970; it was made up of the states in the Eastern Region of Nigeria.
is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state
an ideology which espouses the unification of the countries of North Africa and Western Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, which is referred to as the Arab world. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts the view that the Arabs constitute a single nation.
a worldwide movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all indigenous and diasporan ethnic groups of sub-Saharan African descent.
India Partition
in 1947 which eventually accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan based on religion.
Creation of Israel
The majority report of UNSCOP proposed[129] "an independent Arab State, an independent Jewish State, and the City of Jerusalem", the last to be under "an International Trusteeship System". On 29 November 1947, in Resolution 181 (II), the General Assembly adopted the majority report of UNSCOP, but with slight modifications. The Plan also called for the British to allow "substantial" Jewish migration by 1 February 1948
Armenian genocide
was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians
Pol Pot
Leader of Cambodian government who forcibly relocated the urban population to the countryside to work on collective farms. Those regarded as enemies of the new government were killed. These mass killings, coupled with malnutrition, strenuous working conditions, and poor medical care, killed between 1.5 and 3 million people of a population of roughly 8 million
Rwandan Genocide
was a mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda during the Rwandan Civil War, directed by members of the Hutu majority government between 7 April and 15 July 1994 with an estimated 500,000-1,000,000 killed
is a form of radical, right-wing, authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and of the economy, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
a political concept of a mode of government that prohibits opposition parties, restricts individual opposition to the state and its claims, and exercises an extremely high degree of control over public and private life.
is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. Formed as an alliance against the USSR
Warsaw Pact
was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union and seven Eastern Bloc satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War
Proxy war
is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Anti-apartheid movement
was a British organisation that was at the centre of the international movement opposing the South African apartheid system and supporting South Africa's non-White population who were persecuted by the policies of apartheid.
Prague Spring
was a period of political liberalization and mass protest in Czechoslovakia as a Communist state after World War II. It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), and continued until 21 August 1968, when the Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to suppress the reforms.
Tiananmen Square protest
were student-led demonstrations in Beijing (the capital of the People's Republic of China) for the establishment of basic human and press rights and against the Communist-led Chinese government in mid-1989.
was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1955 until his assassination in 1968. Born in Atlanta, King is best known for advancing civil rights through nonviolence and civil disobedience, tactics his Christian beliefs and the nonviolent activism of Mahatma Gandhi helped inspire.
Nelson Mandela
was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
5 year plans
consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s. The Soviet state planning committee Gosplan developed these plans based on the theory of the productive forces that formed part of the ideology of the Communist Party for development of the Soviet economy. Fulfilling the current plan became the watchword of Soviet bureaucracy.
great leap forward
was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1962. The campaign was led by Chairman Mao Zedong and aimed to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization. These policies led to social and economic disaster, but these failures were hidden by widespread exaggeration and deceitful reports. In short order, large resources were diverted to use on expensive new industrial operations, which, in turn, failed to produce much, and deprived the agricultural sector of urgently needed resources. An important result was a drastic decline in food output, which caused millions of deaths in the Great Chinese Famine.
are paramilitary movements in Ireland in the 20th and the 21st century dedicated to Irish republicanism, the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic from British rule and free to form their own government.
Al Qaeda
is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988 by Osama bin Laden
Military dictatorship
Uganda, Chile, and Spain are examples of when army leaders overthrew democratic governments often with foreign aid
New Deal
American reaction to the Great Depression under Roosevelt that greatly expanded Federal power
Gamal Abdel Nasser
was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1954 until his death in 1970. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year. Following a 1954 attempt on his life by a Muslim Brotherhood member, he cracked down on the organization, put President Mohamed Naguib under house arrest and assumed executive office. He was formally elected president in June 1956.
Nehru’s Planned Economy
Socialist control of India's economy under the Prime Minister
League of Nations
was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace
United Nations
is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. Created in 1945 with USSR, USA, France, China, and England (UK) having a Veto in the security council
International Criminal Court
is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands. The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes of aggression.
International Monetary Fund
is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world
The World Bank
is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries. It is the largest and most well-known development bank in the world
The World Trade Organization
is an intergovernmental organization that is concerned with the regulation of international trade between nations. Largest international economic organization in the world
Multinational Corporation
is a corporate organization which owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country
European Economic Community
was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states. It was created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957
North America Free Trade Agreement
is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten countries in Southeast Asia, which promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration among its members and other countries in Asia.
Mercosur's purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency. It currently confines itself to a customs union, in which there is free intra-zone trade and a common trade policy between member countries in South America
UN Declaration of Rights
is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its 183rd session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France. Of the then 58 members of the United Nations, 48 voted in favor, none against, eight abstained, and two did not vote. The Declaration consists of 30 articles affirming an individual's rights which, although not legally binding in themselves, have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, economic transfers, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions, and other laws.
Global Feminism
is a feminist theory closely aligned with post-colonial theory and postcolonial feminism. It concerns itself primarily with the forward movement of women's rights on a global scale. Using different historical lenses from the legacy of colonialism, global feminists adopt global causes and start movements which seek to dismantle what they argue are the currently predominant structures of global patriarchy.
Negritude movement
is a framework of critique and literary theory, developed mainly by francophone intellectuals, writers, and politicians of the African diaspora during the 1930s, aimed at raising and cultivating Black consciousness across Africa and its diaspora.
Liberation Theology in Latin America
is a synthesis of Christian theology and Marxist socio-economic analyses that emphasizes social concern for the poor and the political liberation for oppressed peoples
Islamic revival
Since the 1970s, a worldwide Islamic revival has emerged, owing in large part to popular disappointment with the secular nation states and Westernized ruling elites, which had dominated the Muslim world during the preceding decades, and which were increasingly seen as authoritarian, ineffective and lacking cultural authenticity
is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s.The term also denotes the modern popular music of Jamaica and its diaspora
is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra.
World Cup Soccer
is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association