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Metals and their Ores 2


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Ore
A mineral containing enough metal to make it economical to extract the metal
Economics
The monetary consideration of whether a metal should be extracted or not
Mined
How an ore is taken from the ground
Concentrated
How the amount of metal in the ore is increased prior to exraction
Extraction
The process by which a metal is obtained from its ore
Purified
The process of removing unwanted elements and compounds from the extracted metal
Recycling
The process of reusing a metal. This is good as extracting metals uses limited resources and lots of energy
Reduction with carbon
Metals less rective than cabon are extracted this way
The Blast Furnace
Used to extract iron from iron ore using carbon reduction
Copper extraction
Heating copper ore in a furnace. This process is otherwise known as smelting
Electrolysis
The method used to extract metals more reactive than carbon.
Phytomining / Bioleaching
New ways of extracting copper from low grade ores to limit the environmental impact of traditional mining
Cast Iron
The basic iron manufatured from the blast furnace. It is 96% iron. The impuriies make it brittle
Steels
Alloys of iron. Often mixtures of iron and carbon but sometimes other metals. They are designed to have specific properties
Low carbon steel
Steels that are easily shaped
High carbon steel
hard and often used for cutting tools
Stainless steel
Resistant to corrosion so often used for cutlery, cooking utensils and for applications where the steel will be exposed to water
Alloys
A mixture of metals or metal and carbon atoms. Metals are often alloyed to improve their properties such as hardness
Transition Metals
The elements in the central block of the periodic table.
Copper
Used in wiring as it is an excellent conductor. Used in plumbing as it does not rust
Aluminium
Has a low densitry so used in overhead powerlines and in aeroplanes
Malleable
Can be hammered in to shape. Most metals exhibit this property