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Crude Oil 1


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Made from the remains of dead sea animals. Is a mixture of a very large number of compounds
Crude Oil
The physical combination of two or more substances that does not change the identities of the mixed substances.
Mixture
A method of separating two sibstances. The process depends on the substances having different boiling points
Distillation
Organic compounds consisting of only carbon and hydrogen. Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
A class of hydrocarbons in which the atoms are connected only by single bonds.
Alkanes
A compound that contains the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. They are also called alkanes
Saturated hydrocarbon
The general formula for an alkane
CnH2n+2
The seperation of the components in a crude oil mixture into fractions which have similar boiling points. The oil is evaporated and then allowed to condense at a number of different temperatures typically using a fractionating column.
fractional distillation
The temperature at which a liquid changes to gas (boils) and gas changes to liquid (condenses).
Boiling point (bp)
A measurement of the "runniness" of a liquid
Viscosity
The ease with which a substance will burn
Flammability
The reaction where a fuel is burned in air to release energy
Combustion
The products of complete combustion
Carbon Dioxide and Water
When a fuel is burned without sufficient oxygen. Carbon Monoxide or Carbon, and Water are made
Incomplete combustion
In its simplest form a reaction where oxygen is added. During a combustion reaction the hydrogen and carbon atoms are oxidised.
Oxidation
Another name for solid particles released during incomplete combustion, aka Carbon
Soot
A by-product of burning fossil fuels. Causes acid rain (sulphuric acid in the rain water)
Sulphur Dioxide
Another by-product of combsustion. Caused by the high temperatures in a combustion engine allowing nitrogen to be oxidised. Also a cause of acid rain
Nitrogen Oxides
fuel produced from renewable plant material (biomass)
biofuel
A common biofuel made from the fermentation os sugar cane
Ethanol
a renewable, non-petroleum-based fuel obtained by transesterification from vegetable oils, such as soya bean and rapeseed oil
biodiesel
applies to a process which occurs without any change in the total amount of carbon dioxide present in the atmospher. A key advantage of using biofuels
carbon neutral
a key issue surrounding the use of biofuels. The growth of plant for biofuels means the land cannot be used for other purposes
Loss of farmland
The process by which the planet is warming. This has been attributed to the release of CO2 from burning fossil fuels
Global warming
A possible fuel for the future as it emits no pollution at the point of use (there are issues with its use however)
Hydrogen