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Crude Oil 2


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Crude Oil
Made from the remains of dead sea animals. Is a mixture of a very large number of compounds
Mixture
The physical combination of two or more substances that does not change the identities of the mixed substances.
Distillation
A method of separating two sibstances. The process depends on the substances having different boiling points
Hydrocarbons
Organic compounds consisting of only carbon and hydrogen. Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons
Alkanes
A class of hydrocarbons in which the atoms are connected only by single bonds.
Saturated hydrocarbon
A compound that contains the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. They are also called alkanes
CnH2n+2
The general formula for an alkane
fractional distillation
The seperation of the components in a crude oil mixture into fractions which have similar boiling points. The oil is evaporated and then allowed to condense at a number of different temperatures typically using a fractionating column.
Boiling point (bp)
The temperature at which a liquid changes to gas (boils) and gas changes to liquid (condenses).
Viscosity
A measurement of the "runniness" of a liquid
Flammability
The ease with which a substance will burn
Combustion
The reaction where a fuel is burned in air to release energy
Carbon Dioxide and Water
The products of complete combustion
Incomplete combustion
When a fuel is burned without sufficient oxygen. Carbon Monoxide or Carbon, and Water are made
Oxidation
In its simplest form a reaction where oxygen is added. During a combustion reaction the hydrogen and carbon atoms are oxidised.
Soot
Another name for solid particles released during incomplete combustion, aka Carbon
Sulphur Dioxide
A by-product of burning fossil fuels. Causes acid rain (sulphuric acid in the rain water)
Nitrogen Oxides
Another by-product of combsustion. Caused by the high temperatures in a combustion engine allowing nitrogen to be oxidised. Also a cause of acid rain
biofuel
fuel produced from renewable plant material (biomass)
Ethanol
A common biofuel made from the fermentation os sugar cane
biodiesel
a renewable, non-petroleum-based fuel obtained by transesterification from vegetable oils, such as soya bean and rapeseed oil
carbon neutral
applies to a process which occurs without any change in the total amount of carbon dioxide present in the atmospher. A key advantage of using biofuels
Loss of farmland
a key issue surrounding the use of biofuels. The growth of plant for biofuels means the land cannot be used for other purposes
Global warming
The process by which the planet is warming. This has been attributed to the release of CO2 from burning fossil fuels
Hydrogen
A possible fuel for the future as it emits no pollution at the point of use (there are issues with its use however)