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Alcohol and Oils 2


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Ethanol
C2H5OH
Hydration of ethane
An industrial method to produce methanol using steam and a catalyst
Fermentation
A natural process where ethanol is produced from sugar. Yeast converts sugar into carbon dioxide and ethanol.
Renewable resources
Resources that are not (in theory) going to run out. They can be replaced as quickly as they are used up. The fermentation of ethanol uses renewable resources
Natural oils
The substances found in some fruits, nuts and seeds.
Distillation
One method by which some natural oils in plants are extracted.
Pressing
A simple technique that involves crushing plant material to extract natural oils.
Purification
The process by which unwanted chemical or impurities are removed. Often in the case of plant oils this is water and can be removed by evaporation
Frying
The process of cooking in vegetable oils at higher temperatues than boiling.
Quicker cooking
A key advantage to cooking in vegetable oils
Vegetable Oils
An important food and fuel as they provide a lot of energy and nutrients
Increased energy in food
A key drawback of cooking in vegetable oil.
Unsaturated fats
Vegetable oils that have a carbon-carbon double bond. They can be tested for with bromine water
Bromine water
A test for unstaturated substances. Bromine water turns from orange to colourless
Immiscible
The inability for two substances to mix. Oil and water is a good example of this.
Emulsions
The prdoduct of using an emulsifier to mix oil and water
Salad Dressing
A example of the use of emulsions in food.
Emulsion properties
Thicker than oil or water alone
Improved texture or coating ability
Key advantages of emulstions.
Emulsifiers
The substances that allow oil and water to mix. They have hydrophobic tails and hydrophillic heads
Hydrophobic
the area of a molecule that is attracted to oils or repelled from water
Hydrophilic
The area of a molecule that is attracted to water
Hydrogenation
The process of reacting unsaturated vegetable oils with hydrogen at 60 degress in the presence of a nickel catalyst.