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The Earth's Structure and Atmosphere 1


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Our planet. Its basic structure consists of the core, mantle, crust and the atmosphere
The earth
The central section of the earth. Made of iron.
The core
The layer of the earth that is a fluid that has convection currents within it
The mantle
Parts of the mantle that are moving, driven by natural radioactive processes. It i these currents that cause the tectonic plates to move
Convection currents
The solid upper layer of the earth. This is where the continents are.
The crust
Pieces of the crust and upper mantle that are cracked.
Tectonic plates
The relative speed at which the tectonic plate move
A few centimeters per year
Caused by a sudden movement in a tectonic plate. The forces involved are huge and can cause widespread damage
Earthquake
The place where two plates meet. This is where most earthquakes occur and volcanoes are found
Plate boundary
The man who came up with tectonic plate theory. This theory was not accepted for many years
Wegener
A now debunked theory as to how mountains were formed. The earth's crust shrank as it cooled following its formation
Shrinkage
The approximate amount of time the atmosphere has had its current composition
200 million years
The amout of nitrogen in the atmosphere today
about 80%
The approximate amount of the atmosphere that is made up from oxygen today
about 20%
The amount of the atmosphere that is made up from all the other gases including carbon dioxide and water vapour
1%
the processes that caused the atmosphere to form during the fist billion years of the earth's existence
Volcanic activity
Mainly composed of carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia
Early atmosphere
A theory as to how life was formed on earth
Hydrocarbons, ammonia and lightning interacting
The producers of the oxygen now found in the atmosphere
Plants and algae
Where most of the carbon from the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere ended up locked away
Carbonates and fossil fuels
These bodies act as a reserviour for the absorption of carbon dioxide
Oceans
This process is leading to the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Burning fossil fuels
a mixture of gases with different boiling points
Air
A way of separating the gases in the air so they can be used for a variety of industrial processed
Fractional distillation