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Atoms and Electronic Structure


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Proton
A subatomic particle found in the nucleus with an atomic mass of 1 and a charge of +1.
Neutron
A subatomic particle found in the nucleus with an atomic mass of 1, and a charge of 0.
Electron
A negatively charged subatomic particle. They surround the atoms nucleus.
Electron shells
energy levels into which electrons are distributed
Isotope
Atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but a different atomic mass number.
Element
all atoms have the same number of protons (atomic number)
Group numbers
Numbers that appear at the top of each vertical column (group) in the periodic table and indicate the number of electrons in the outermost energy level.
Group 1
The alkali metals. They all have one electron in their outershell and have similar reactions
Reaction
The process of the atoms in substances rearranging to form new chemicals
Bond
The attraction between to atoms. This is most commonly a covalent or ionic bond
Molecular Formula
The actual number of atoms of each element present. It is a multiple of the empirical formula.
Displayed Formula
a formula showing the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them.
Balanced equation
The final form of a chemical equation that shows the same number of atoms of each element in the reactants and products.