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Metals and their Ores 1


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A mineral containing enough metal to make it economical to extract the metal
Ore
The monetary consideration of whether a metal should be extracted or not
Economics
How an ore is taken from the ground
Mined
How the amount of metal in the ore is increased prior to exraction
Concentrated
The process by which a metal is obtained from its ore
Extraction
The process of removing unwanted elements and compounds from the extracted metal
Purified
The process of reusing a metal. This is good as extracting metals uses limited resources and lots of energy
Recycling
Metals less rective than cabon are extracted this way
Reduction with carbon
Used to extract iron from iron ore using carbon reduction
The Blast Furnace
Heating copper ore in a furnace. This process is otherwise known as smelting
Copper extraction
The method used to extract metals more reactive than carbon.
Electrolysis
New ways of extracting copper from low grade ores to limit the environmental impact of traditional mining
Phytomining / Bioleaching
The basic iron manufatured from the blast furnace. It is 96% iron. The impuriies make it brittle
Cast Iron
Alloys of iron. Often mixtures of iron and carbon but sometimes other metals. They are designed to have specific properties
Steels
Steels that are easily shaped
Low carbon steel
hard and often used for cutting tools
High carbon steel
Resistant to corrosion so often used for cutlery, cooking utensils and for applications where the steel will be exposed to water
Stainless steel
A mixture of metals or metal and carbon atoms. Metals are often alloyed to improve their properties such as hardness
Alloys
The elements in the central block of the periodic table.
Transition Metals
Used in wiring as it is an excellent conductor. Used in plumbing as it does not rust
Copper
Has a low densitry so used in overhead powerlines and in aeroplanes
Aluminium
Can be hammered in to shape. Most metals exhibit this property
Malleable