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Level 1

Unit 1 - Topic A


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Perception
the way the brain makes sense of the visual image detected by the eyes
Retina
the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. It is made up of nerve cells
Rods
Light sensitive cells in the retina that respond even in dim light
Cones
light sensitive cells in the retina that can detect colour
Optic nerve
bundle of nerve cells that leads out from the retina at the back of the eye. Carries info to the brain
Blindspot
the area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves. It has no rods or cones so cannot detect light
Optic chiasma
the cross-shape where some of the info from the left and right eye cross over to opposite sides of the brain
Visual cortex
the area at the back of the brain that interprets visual information
Monocular depth cues
information about distance that comes from one eye
Binocular depth cues
information about distance that comes from 2 eyes
Size constancy
we percieve an object as the same size even when its distance from us changes
Relative size
smaller objects are perceived as further away than larger ones
Texture gradient
an area with a detailed pattern is percieved to be nearer than one with less detail
Height in the plane
objects closer to the horizon are percieved to be more distant than ones below or above it
Superimposition
a partly hidden object must be further away than the object covering it
Linear perspective
parallel lines appear to meet in the distance
Stereopsis
The greater the difference between the view seen by the left eye and the right eye, the closer the viewer is looking
Gestalt Laws
perceptual rules that organise stimuli
Figure-ground
a figure is seen as separate from a background
Similarity
figures charing size shape or colour are grouped together with other things that look the same
Proximity
Objects which are close together are perceived to be related
Closure
Lines or shapes are perceived as complete figures even if parts are missing
Continuity
Straight lines, curves and shapes are perceived to carry on the same
Visual illusion
a conflict between reality and what we perceive
Fiction
An illusion caused when a figure is perceived even though it is not present in the stimulus
Illusory contour
a boundary that is perceived in a figure but not in the stimulus
Ambiguous figure
a stimulus with two possible interpretations
Distortion
where our perception is deceieved by some aspect of the stimulus
Gestalts theory
He uses gestalt laws to suggest that our perception organises the parts of the stimulus into a whole
Peterson
conducted an experiment to see whether we recognise the object or divide stimulus into figure and ground
Strengths of gestalts theory
Good explanation for ambiguous figures, explains fictions well
Weaknesses of gestalts theory
Only explains muller-lyer, explains kania triangle wrong
Gregorys theory
He said that we interpret paterns as if they were depth cues
Strengths of gregorys theory
good explanations for distortions, explain some ambiguous figures, explain some fictions
Weaknesses of gregorys theory
Only explains line version of muller-lyer, more illusions can be explained by gestalt
Schema
a framework of knowledge about an object event or group of people
Perceptual set
the tendency to notice some things more than others
Palmers aim
To find out whether conext affects our perception
Palmers procedure
64 students shown a scene briefly then shown some objects that either relate or not to the context. They were asked to correctly identify the object
Palmers findings
The participants correctly identified the most objects after seeing an appropriate conext
Strengths of palmers study
Controlled how long they saw conext, had instructions, data not included from people who forgot their glasses
Weaknesses of palmers study
Could of tried harder as they were told what to do, fewer results
Bartletts aim
to investigate how information changes with each reproduction and why it changes
Serial reproduction
The first person reads the story to themselves than wait 12-30 mins before telling in to the second participant and so on
Repeated reproduction
each person was tested seperatly, read story then repeated it to someone. They did this again after different time intervals
Bartletts findings
Details were lost, things were added, things were simplified, order of events sticks
Strengths of bartletts study
Both reproductions were done many times, other stories used too
Weaknesses of bartletts study
He can't be sure that the changes he found would be generalisable, did test in the same time intervals
Carmichaels aim
to find out whether words shown with pictures would affect the way the pictures were remembered
Carmichaels procedure
95 participants split into 3 groups were shown 12 pictures with different word labels. 3rd group was a control group
Carmichaels findings
The drawsing produced by group 1 were different from the ones in group 2.
Strengths of carmichaels study
Used a control group, 2 different lists of word labels, 12 pictures so lots of evidence
Weaknesses of Carmichaels study
In real life things aren't as ambiguous, prentic showed that word labels afect recognition not recall
Experimental design
the way that participants are used in different conditions in an experiement
Independent group design
different participants are used in each condition in an experiment
Repeated measures design
the same participants are used in all conditions in an experiment
Controls
ways to keep variables constant in all conditions in an experiment
Strengths of experiments
Informed consent, right to withdraw, controls
Weaknesses of experiments
Hiding experimental aims, deception, representing real life
Tuckey and brewer
Showed participants a video of a bank robbery, they were then asked what they recalled and some said things that fitted with a scheme and weren't actually there
Allport and Postman
Showed participants a picture of a black man in a suit and a white man holding a razor. More than half falsely recall the black man with the razor
Boon and davis
Showed participants a pic of a violent knife crime. Half saw 2 white men, half saw a white and black man. When asked to recall they chose the slide with the black man holding the knife