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Unit 1 - Topic B


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Freud
He thought that a large part of the mind is not accessible and is hidden completely
Manifest content
what the dream is said to be about
Latent content
The meaning underlying the dream
Condensation
when many thoughts and elements from the unconcious are represented in a dream in one symbol
Displacement
When something that seems to be unimportant in the dream is made central to shift attention from what is really important
Secondary elaboration
How the dreamer builds a story when telling what the dream is about
Dreamwork
it is what the mind is doing whilst dreaming, keeping unconscious thoughts hidden and repressed
Snakes
Sign of trouble, penis, death
Guns
Linked with males, power
Clothes
about how we think others see us, not prepared for something, restricted
Knives
Cutting, cut off by someone
Lifts
Something is going wrong life pushing the wrong button in a lift
Psychoanalysis
Freuds therapy, designed to help release unconscious thoughts
Free association
the patient is encouraged to express a flow of consciousness to help uncover links which can be interpreted
Slip of the tongue
When someone uses the wrong word for something. Freud analysed these to help uncover unconscious thoughts
Dream analysis
a methos used by freud to help uncover unconscious thoughts
Generalisable
refers to findings of studies and whether they can be said to be true of peoplr other than thoses who were studied
Strengths of freuds theory
Used unique methods, gathered in-depth data
Weaknesses of freuds theory
His sample was biased, his concepts were immeasurable, his interpretation, biological theory is better
Neuron
a cell in the body, including in the brain that sends info using electrical and chemical processes
Axon
the 'cable' that leads from a cell body of a neuron down to the terminal buttons that hold down the neurotransmitter
Impulse
the electrical signal that travels from the cell body of a neuron to the terminal buttons
Neurotransmitter
a chemical at the terminal button which is released by the impulse
Synaptic gap
the gap between the dendrites of one neuron and the next
synaptic transmission
what happens when a neurotransmitter released by an impulse of one neuron goes across the synaptic gap
Activation-synthesis
a model of dreaming proposed by Hobson and McCarley
REM sleep
A stage of sleep where rapid eye movement takes place
Sensory blockade
During REM sleep when no information enters through the senses
Random activation
during REM sleep when neurons are active randomly not deliberately
Movement inhibition
the state during REM sleep when the body is paralysed and there is no movement
Strengths of case studies
valid real life data, detail that is hard to find in any other way
Weaknesses of case studies
Generalisability, subjectivity, objectivity and reliability
Dealing with privacy
Change the participants name
Dealing with confidentiality
Don't share details from the case study with other people
Privacy
ensures that their names must not be recorded and they must not be identifiable
Confidentiality
Ensures that their information gained must not be shared without permission
Oedipus complex
the idea that a boy from about 4 yeards old will have unconscious feelings for his mother
Strengths of dream analysis
Access hard to reach info, usually accepted by client, uses info from client directly
Weaknesses of dream analysis
There may be ethical problems, involves interpretation which is subjective
False memory
Any memory that is not true and can be given by someone else remembering the event and telling someone else who then remembers it as true
Skills required
A good listener, able to work with people with emotional problems, be non-judgmental, patience
Training required
lasts 4 years, person must undergo psychoanalysis, psychoanaylise 2 patients
Insomnia
this means someone cannot go to sleep ot cannot stay asleep
Hypersomnia
this means a person feels very sleepy at all times of the day
Circadian rhythm disorders
this means that there are problems with their body clock
Parasomnias
this means that a person has nightmares, sleep terrors or sleep walking
Medication
drugs are often used to help sleep disorders. Used to regulate sleeping and waking patterns
Cognitive behavioural therapy
Addresses bad thoughts to do with sleeping but having this therapy can turn them into positive thoughts
Acupuncture
Inserting needles into pressure points to release trapped energy. This can help the body clock readjust
Hypnotherapy
Involves the client relaxing so that the therapist can help uncover any problems the client has