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Proteins: amino acids/structure levels/in action


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Protein synthesis
Cells creating proteins on ribosomes
Primary structure
The sequence of amino acids within a protein
Protease enzymes
Enzymes that catalyse the breaking down of peptide bonds
Secondary structure
Either the coiling or folding of the sequence of amino acids
α-helix
A type of secondary structure in which the sequence coils
β-pleated sheet
A type of secondary structure in which the sequence folds
Tertiary structure
The final shape of (most) proteins. This happens using a mixture of hydrophobic and hydrophillic interactions, disulfide bonds, ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds
Denaturation
An external factor acting on the protein (such as heat) that causes the tertiary structure to unravel, leaving the protein unable to function.
Globular protein
A type of protein in which the tertiary structure forms a spherical shape. They will often be metabolic molecules.
Fibrous protein
A type of protein in which the tertiary structure form long fibres. They will often be structural molecules.
Quaternary structure
The final structure level for some proteins. It will either hold two polypeptide subunits together, or a polypeptide and an inorganic component
Haemoglobin
Globular protein consisting of a protein and a prosthetic group
Collagen
Structural protein consisting of three tertiary structures, coiled together by hydrogen bonds