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P1.5 Waves

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Mechanical waves
Vibration that travels through a substance.
Electromagnetic wave
Electric and magnetic disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another.
Oscillate rapidly (or move to and fro rapidly about a certain position).
Move to and fro about a certain position along a line.
At right angles.
Transverse wave
Wave in which the vibrations are perpendicular to the direction of the energy transfer.
Longitudinal wave
Wave in which the vibrations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.
Squeezed together.
Stretched apart.
The height of a wave crest or a wave trough of a transverse wave from the rest position.
The distance from one wave crest to the next wave crest (along the waves).
The number of wave crests passing a fixed point every second.
Distance moved divided by time taken.
Plane Mirror
A flat mirror.
Straight line through a surface or boundary perpendicular to the surface or boundary.
Angle of incidence
Angle between the incidence ray and the normal.
Angle of reflection
Angle between the reflected ray and the normal.
Virtual image
An image formed where light rays appear to come from.
Real image
An image formed where light rays meet.
The change of direction of a light ray when it passes across a boundary between two transparent substances (including air).
Line along which two substances meet.
The spreading of waves when they pass through a gap or around the edges of an obstacle which has a similar size as the wavelengh of the waves.
Ultrasound waves
Sound wave at frequencies greater than 20 000Hz which is the upper frequency of the human ear.
Reflection of sound that can be heard.
The pitch of a sound increases if the frequency of the sound waves increases.
When sound vibrations build up in a musical instrument and cause the sound from the instrument to become much louder.