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Representation of Data in Computer Systems


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Binary
Number system in base 2 that computers use to represent data and instructions
Denary
Number system in base 10
Hexadecimal
Number system in base 16 that can be easily converted into binary
Bit
The name for a single 0 or 1 in binary
Nibble
Half of a byte is known as a…
Byte
255 is the maximum positive integer that can be represented by which binary unit?
Overflow
Error that occurs when a number becomes too large to fit into the number of bits allocated
Terabyte
"At present, the capacity of the largest hard drives runs into this unit of binary"
Kilobyte
"Binary unit consisting of 1,024 bytes"
Gigabyte
"Binary unit consisting of 1,024 megabytes"
ASCII
A relatively simple character set that can represent 128 different characters
Unicode
An industry-standard character set that can represent thousands of different characters
Address
Location in main memory used to store data or instructions
Register
Fast access part of the processor that stores data being used by the CPU
Operator
Part of the instruction that tells the CPU what to do
Pixel
"The smallest element of a bitmap image, normally arranged in a two-dimensional grid"
EXIF
Common metadata standard used to store information about JPEG images
Resolution
Word used to describe the detail of a digital image
Colour Depth
Refers to the number of bits used to represent the colour of each individual pixel
Monochrome
Image type consisting of various shades of a single colour
Sample Rate
The frequency at which an analogue sound signal is converted into digital
Sample Depth
The precision at which each datum of sound is recorded
Uncompressed
.WAV and .AIFF are file extensions for this category of audio file
MP3
The most common compressed audio format used today
JPEG
The most common compressed image format used today
File Size
A downside of storing better quality images/audio is that this attribute will be larger
Raster
Graphics format consisting of a matrix of dots
metadata
Information about the image data that allows a computer to recreate the image from binary
Bit rate
"The space available for each sample, measured in kilobits per second (kbits/s)"
Analogue
This sound recording method has continuously changing values