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Communications and Networking


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Hyperlink
An item on a web page that directs the user to another page when clicked
GIF
Common Internet file format used to display animated images
DNS Server
Computer within an ISP network responsible for matching up host names to IP addresses
Bridge
Device that connects different network segments and media
HTTP
Important data transfer protocol used on the World Wide Web – precedes URL addresses
Bandwidth
The amount of data that can be transferred from one point to another in a given time period
Peer to Peer
"Network type in which every computer can act as a client or server, with no central servers"
Backup
"Policy that involves duplicating data for storage elsewhere, in case the original data is lost"
Archive
Policy that involves moving data that is no longer in active use to a different location
Failover
Process of automatically switching to a standby computer or network during system downtime
Client
Software or hardware that requests services from a server
HTML
The main markup language used for displaying web pages in a browser
Compression
"The process of reducing the physical size of files, normally for use online"
Encryption
The purpose of scrambling data so it can be sent securely over networks
Bus network
Topology in which individual computers connect to one shared communications cable
Internet
A worldwide collection of computer networks
Hub
A device for connecting multiple network devices in one segment
MAC Address
A unique number permanently assigned to every physical interface on a computer network
Network Interface Card
Circuit board installed into a computer to allow it to connect to networks
Switch
Device that connects multiple network devices and multiple segments
Router
Device that forwards data packets to the appropriate parts of a computer network
Modem
"Device which converts between digital and analogue signals, e.g. telephone line to computer"
MPEG
Family of file standards used to store compressed video
Packet
Formatted unit of data sent across networks
PDF
File format designed for cross-platform document creation and distribution
Server
"Software that provides services to a client, or the hardware that is running it"
Protocol
The term given to standards that control the communication of network devices
Ring network
Topology in which messages travel in one direction through a chain of computers
Star network
Topology that features a central connection point called a 'hub'
IP Address
Unique number assigned to every computer or device connected to the Internet