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This is ANY trace of an animal or plant that lived long ago.
Things like teeth shells and bones don't decay easily and so eventually this happens.
Casts and Impressions
These can occur when an organism is buried in a soft material or leavs a foot print etc.
This happens when no decay occurs, this is because the conditions are not suitable for microbes to work.
Fossils found in this can tell us three things, what the organism looked like, how long ago they lived and how they evolved.
The chronological collection of life's remains in rock layers.
A limb with five didgets.
Similarity in Bone Structure
This is why the pentadactyl limb provides evidence for evolution.