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Functionalism (Control theory)

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functions of crime
boundary maintenance, adaptation and change, safety valve, warning light
Durkheim AO2
He claims society requires a certain amount of deviance to function but offers no way of knowing how much is the right amount. Functionalists also fail to explain why crime exists in the first place.
Where the vast majority of people share similar values.
A term used by Focault, merging the notions of formal and informal social control.
External patterns of social control
Social control imposed by people on potential or actual offenders.
Control theory AO2
1. Looks at the pressures to conform in society and the social control arrangements needed to reduce levels of crime. 2. Insists that individuals are making choices when they commit deviant or criminal acts and are not 'forced' to do them. 3. Target-hardening policies are popular with those who live in high areas of crime. 4. Looks at long-term engagement with the young and their distance from crime.
Control theory AO2
5. Assumes that everybody would commit crime if given the chance to do so without detection. 6. Over-emphasises the commitment of individuals to deviant activity, which is, more often than not, a transitory, episodic action. 6. Seems to suggest that members of the m/c have more self-control than the w/c.
Internalized forms of social control
Social control that people impose upon themselves via their conscience, which is, in turn, largely the result of their upbringing.
Control theory AO2
Much control theory relies on self-report studies and there are doubts about the validity of the findings of these. Some of the factors in the concept of inner containment are difficult to operationalise and explore. Life-course theorists adopt a longitudinal approach to the study of delinquency, because they are interested in the persistence in or desistance (zaniechanie) of criminal behaviour throughout individual lives.
Mechanistic societies
Technologically and socially simple societies, in which people are culturally different from each other.
Organic societies
Culturally and technologically complex societies, in which people are culturally different from each other.
A design of prison in which the prisoners can be observed at all times, but never know whether or not they are being observed. The term is now used as a means of describing a society where this happens.
A model of law based upon trying to repair the damage done to society.
Retributive (kara)
A model of law based upon revenge.