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Control, punishment, and victims

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Cognitive map
A personal map of a town based on an individual's daily activities.
Collective efficacy
The ability of a community to achieve their aims (which usually include limiting crime).
Concentric zones
Widening circles
Cultural transmission
Values are passed on from one generation to the next.
Differential association
The theory that deviant behaviour is learned from, and justified by, family and friends.
Night-time economy
Refers to the way that a leisure industry has developed at night, which provides the location of many offences.
Opportunity theory
Crime occurs when there is an opportunity, stop the opportunity and crime is less likely to occur.
Privatization of the public space
The way that public areas are increasingly being owned by companies, who police it in such way as to exclude undesirables.
Routine activities
The normal activities of daily life provide the cognitive maps and opportunities for crime.
Situational crime prevention.
An approach to crime which ignores the motivation for offending and instead concentrates on making it more difficult to commit.
Social capital
The extent of social networks.
Social disorganization
A city area that does not have a shared culture.
The process by which an area moves from being predominantly law-abiding to predominantly accepting antisocial behaviour.
Zone of transition
The cheapest, least desirable zones of the city, into which immigrants are moved.
Feeley and Simon's view that modern governments look for risk factors and then focus all their energies on the group(s) identified as most likely to commit crime
Broken windows theory
(Wilson and Kelling) The idea that if less serious crimes are allowed, more serious ones are likely to occur later.
Canteen culture
A term which refers to the occupational culture developed by the police.
Crime displacement
Where effective crime prevention in one place has the unfortunate result of moving it elsewhere or onto different victims. It is based on rational choice theory.
Culture of control
Garland claims that modern governments have given up trying to stop crime; they now merely wish to manage people's attitudes towards it.
Defensible space
Architectural design that makes it more difficult to commit crime.
Discretion (swoboda decyzji)
The fact that the police have to use their judgement about when to use the force of law.
Penal welfiarism
Garland's name for the traditional approach of the criminal justice system, which sought to punish and rehabilitate offenders.
Risk factors
The family and social factors which are statistically most likely to predict future offending.
Target hardening
(SITUATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION) Ways of making objects more difficult to steal and people less likely to be victims. e.g. locking doors, security guards. This approach may explain petty street crime but not white-collar, corporate crime, and state crime. The assumption that criminals make rational choices may not be true of violent and drug-related crimes.
It measures may simply displace crime. However, sometimes this approach does more than simply displacing crime or deviance; e.g. changing from coal gas to less toxic natural gas reduced total suicides - not just those from gassing.
Environmental Crime Prevention AO2
There is some evidence for this approach; e.g. zero tolerance policing in New York in the 1990s produced a significant fall in crime. However, some claim that this was more to do with increasing police numbers and falling unemployment.
Social and community crime prevention
Rather than emphasizing policing, these strategies ephasize dealing with the social conditions that predispose some some individual to future crime e.g. poverty. (AO2) The Perry pre-school project in Michigan gave an experimental group of disadvantaged 3-4 year olds a two-year intellectual enrichment programme. The longitudinal study following their progress into adulthood showed far fewer arrests to violent crime, property crime and drugs compared with peers not in the project.
1. Deterrence (may prevent future crime from a fear of punishment) 2. Rehabilitation e.g. anger management courses 3. Incapacitation (ubezwłasnowolnienie) e.g. execution, imprisonment 4. Retribution (kara)
Functionalism and punishment
(DURKHEIM) 1. Retributive justice - traditional society has a strong collective conscience, so punishment is severe and vengeful. 2. Restitutive (rekompensata) justice - in modern society, there is extensive interdependence between individuals. Crime damages this and the function of justice system should be to repair the damage e.g. compensation.
Durkheim AO2
His view is too simplistic: traditional societies often have restitutive rather than retributive justice, e.g. paying off a blood feud (krwawe porachunki rodzinne).
Michael Focault
Two forms of punishment: 1. Sovereign (najwyższa) power - in pre-modern society, the monarch exercised physical power e.g. public execution 2. Disciplinary power - becomes dominant from the 19th century and seeks to govern not just the body, but also the mind through surveillance e.g. panopticon
Michael Focault AO2
His claim of a shift from corporal punishment to imprisonment is over-simplistic and he exaggerates the extent of control; e.g. even psychiatric patients can resist control.
Trends in punishment
1. The changing role of prison (from holding offenders PRIOR to punishment in pre-industrial Europe to a form of punishment in itself). 2. Transcarceration (moving people between prison-like institutions e.g. brought up in care, then a young offender's institution) 3. Alternatives to prison e.g. curfews, tagging.
David Garland
He argues that the USA and to some extent the UK are moving into an era of mass incarceration (uwięzienie). In the USA, over 3% of the adult population now have some form of a judicial restriction on their liberty. He argues crime control has become more politicised. 'Tough on crime' policies e.g. prison appeal to the public despite being relatively ineffective in reducing crime.
Positivist victimology
It focuses on interpersonal crimes of violence and seeks patterns to identify the characters of victims. 1. Victim proneness e.g. less intelligent 2. Victim precipitation (gwałtowność) - Wolfgang's study of 588 homicides found that 26% involved the victim triggering the events leading to murder e.g. first used violence (AO2) This approach is close to being victim-blaming. It ignores wider structural factors such as poverty and patriarchy.
Victimization AO2
1. Crime may create 'indirect' victims .e.g. family/friends/witnesses 2. Hate crimes against ethnic minorities may create 'waves of harm' that radiate out to intimidate whole communities 3. Secondary victimization e.g. rape victims in the CJS 4. Crime may create fear of becoming a victim (even if irrational) e.g. women.
Critical victimology
It focuses on structural factors e.g. patriarchy and poverty and also includes studying those who are overlooked by the criminal justice system (e.g. women and domestic violence) or overlooked by society as a whole. Tombs and Whyte show that employers' violations of the law leading to death or injury to workers are often explained away as the fault of 'accident prone' workers. (consider Marxism)