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John Broadwood
first divided piano construction into specialist areas
international communication
led to new developments becoming known and copied
American piano
cast-iron frame with English action
Viennese action
redundant by late 19th century
date of standardised modern piano design
7 octaves + minor 3rd
compass of modern piano
string developments
thicker, pulled tighter
hammer developments
heavier, covered with felt
Parisian style
"modern and excessive"
German style
Liszt style
lots of pedal and rubato, large-scale performances
Chopin style
"more refined", salon
20th century vibrato
became wider and continuous
bow vibrato
moving bow back and forth on same note quickly
modern name for bow vibrato