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left-hand vibrato
moving finger back and forth to alter pitch
longer fingerboard
better for higher position shifting
tilted neck
aids shifting
higher bridge
increases length/tension of string to increase volume
flatter body
louder sound for larger venues
chest hold
violin held against chest in early portraits
shoulder hold
violin held between chin and chest for greater security
on the string
legato bowing
off the string
detached bowing, may lift or bounce
portamento
sliding between notes
chin rest
invented in 1820s to improve grip on violin
endpin
cello spike invented 1820s which improves stability
gut strings
made of sheep gut, warmer sound
steel E string
brighter than gut for high notes
steel strings
more durable than gut strings