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The Singer's Preceptor
1810 singing manual showing messa di voce exercises
Manuel Garcia
inventor of the laryngoscope
laryngoscope
mirror on a long handle used to look at vocal cords
Adelina Patti
b.1843, uses no vibrato and extensive portamento
Nelli Melba
b.1861, uses some vibrato and replaces portamento with diminuendo
Anna Moffo
rec. 1960, "continuous vibrato", no portamento or improvised ornamentation
18th century
establishment of the modern orchestra
clarinet
introduced to orchestra in late 1700s
brass
increased over 18th century
percussion
introduced in 19th century and grew over 20th
funding
affects orchestra size - affordability
size of venue
orchestra size - fit in building
court
smaller than public venues
string section
basis of the orchestra
Fritz Kreisler
first violinist to use "continuous and prominent vibrato"