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Fluid Dynamics

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An Ideal Fluid
Has zero viscosity, zero surface tension, is incompressible and does not change phase.
Steady Flow
No change in properties with respect to time.
Uniform Flow
Properties are the same at all points at any given instant.
One-Dimensional Flow
All properties are uniform over any plane perpendicular to the flow direction.
A line along which all fluid particles (at a given instant) have velocity vectors tangential to the line.
The route taken by a single fluid particle during a given time.
A line that joins all particles that have passed through a given point in a given time.
'Internal friction' in a fluid, resistance to motion.
Newton's Law of Viscosity
As a fluid passes over a surface, fluid touching the surface is trapped and does not move. Velocity increases with distance from the surface as a smooth curve (velocity profile).
Velocity Gradient
Rate of change of velocity with time (rate of shear).
Newtonian Fluids
Fluids that follow Newton's Law of Viscosity.