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Willmott and Young 1973
Rise in symmetrical family, men are helping more with the housework
Ann Oakley 1974
Wilmott and Young methodology flawed, results not truly representative
Gender roles will always mean inequality
Anthony Giddens
Changing social attitudes have resulted in more equality in the household
Benston 1969
If domestic labour were paid capitalist profits would decrease significantly
Rapoport and Rapoport 1982
Plurality of family structures: Cohort, Class, Culture, Organisational, Life Course
Willmott 1988
Nuclear Family still maintains extended ties, reserved for times of crisis - 'Partially isolated nuclear family'
Eversley and Bonnerjea 1982
Family structures change with areas e.g. lone parent inner city/ Nuclear family middle class areas
Macionis and Plummer 1997
Technology has created new family structures e.g. fertility treatment - 1991 Arlette Schweitzer surrogate for daughter's child, both mother and grandmother
Beck 1992
Negotiated family, structures adapt around individual needs
Weeks 2000
Morality a matter of personal choice, religion and tradition less influential
Edgell 1980
No joint conjugal roles found among sample families, however, rise in childcare focus among both husbands and wives
Ferri and Smith
2/3 of working mothers also do the cooking and cleaning (Oakley's 'double burden')
Pahl 1989/93
Working couples pool resource yet husband controls significant spending choices
Diane Bell 1991
Running 'economy of emotion' in household, women are responsible to regulate
Duncombe and Marsden 1995
Triple shift (emotional, domestic and paid work)
Gillian Dunnes 1999
Lesbian relationships more egalitarian than heterosexual counterparts
Dobash and Dobash 1979
Police do not usually record domestic violence reports, most women return to abusive partner due to financial dependency/ social stigmatism
G.P. Murdock 1949
Studied 250 societies, found nuclear family most prominent. Purpose of family: Sexual stability and control, Reproduction of society's members, socialisation of new generation, shared resources for financial stability
Jane Pilcher 1995
Childhood and Adulthood distinction found in separateness. Status difference through laws and rights
Aries 1962
'Centuries of Childhood' - by studying paintings, concluded childhood only existed for the past 300 years or so. Medieval children 'adults' as soon as physically able.
Children are oppressed through adult control of space, time and body
Neil Postman 1982
Difference between childhood and adulthood diminished by technological advances
Sue Palmer 2006
'Toxic childhood' - games, fast-food, less contact with parents etc. contributing to stunted physical and emotional child development
Diana Gittens 1985
age patriarchy - world run by adults, children oppressed
Hockey and James 1993
Childhood a period most wish to escape
Charlie Owens 2007
Children of dual heritage more likely to go into care
Brannen 1994
Asian parents stricter on daughters than sons
Hillman 1993
Parents give more freedom to boys than to girls
Zaretsky 1976
Family offers the proletariate a sense of power, vent status frustration on the family, keeps the proletariat from fighting against capitalism
Engels 1884
Inheritance exists to protect bourgeoisie wealth, maintained through use of 'family'
Morgan 1975
G.P. Murdock's study failed to consider alternative family structures and ignores the flaws of the nuclear family
Talcott Parsons
Women serve an 'expressive' (emotional) role whilst men are naturally more inclined to the 'instrumental' role (breadwinner). Nuclear family is best structure for society today.
Chester 1985
Despite growing diversity Nuclear family most prominent today and is destined to become more egalitarian
Ansley 1972
Men take out frustration on women when capitalism is the source of their problems.
Delphy and Leonard 1992
Women do most of the work, men take most of the benefit
Charles Murray 1989
Welfare benefits have created a 'culture of dependency'
Dominant instutions e.g. education mask the ruling class ideology behind their liberating qualities. I.e. people are indoctrinated with no perception of ruling class motives
Dobash and Dobash 1992
Nuclear family supports patriarchal abuse, supported by lack of state intervention - there exists a 'culture' that men have the 'right' to 'discipline' wives not fulfilling their 'duties'
Barrett and Mcintosh
Women are isolated in the nuclear family, when problems occur, they are under the assumption it is their fault. Family is a private institution which isolates people from the external. (Anti-Social family)
Weeks et al 1999
Rise in same-sex relationships due to changing social attitudes since the 80s
Elston 1980
80% of sampled female doctors willing to give up work in favour of childcare (Parsons Expressive role?)
Wheelock 1990
Men do more housework during periods of unemployment - crisis of masculinity?
Family can lead to mental illness e.g. depression
One good parent is better than two unstable parents
Mclanahan and Booth
Lone parent children perform less well at school, more likely to be delinquents
Parents make children obedient, allowing for capitalist manipulation
Unemployed men do more work than when they were employed
Opie 1993
By observing school behaviour e.g. nursery rhymes etc. Opie comes to the conclusion that the concept of childhood has remained relatively unchanged despite technological changes.