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Coastal Zone

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Physical weathering
The breaking down of rocks, soils and minerals through contact with the Earth's environment; freeze thaw is an example of this.
Chemical weathering
The erosion or disintegration of rocks, soils and minerals caused by chemical reactions; carbonation is an example of this.
Biological weathering
The breaking down of rocks, soils and minerals caused by flora and fauna; roots are an example of this.
The forward movement of a wave up a beach.
The backward movement of a wave down a beach.
The distance of open water over which the wind can blow.
Constructive wave
Strong swash; weak backwash; short fetch.
Destructive wave
Weak swash; strong backwash; long fetch.
The erosional process in which the valley floor is worn away by the grinding of pebbles and other materials.
Rock fragments carried by the sea knock against one another, causing them to become smaller, smoother and rounder.
Hydraulic action
The power of the waves are enough to damage a cliff face by squeezing water into the tiny gaps of air in the rock.
The dissolving of certain types of rock due to chemical properties of the water.
Mass movement
The downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity.
The collapse of a cliff face or the fall of individual rocks from a cliff. This mass movement happens to hard rock.
The collapse of a mass of earth or rock from a mountain or cliff, down a slope. This mass movement happens to hard rock.
Rotational slip
The slippage of saturated soil along a curved surface. This mass movement happens to soft rock.
The flowing of saturated soil down a slope. This mass movement happens to soft rock.
Dissolved chemicals in water.
Particles suspended in water.
Small particles too heavy for suspension, that hop along the seabed.
Large pebbles rolled along the sea floor.
Longshore drift
The transport of sediment along a stretch of coastline caused by waves approaching the beach at an angle.
Wave-cut notch
A small indentation cut into a cliff roughly at high tide level, caused by coastal erosion.
Wave-cut platform
A wide, gently sloping rocky surface at the foot of a cliff, caused by coastal erosion.
A promontory of land jutting out into the sea.
A broad coastal inlet often with a beach.
A hollowed out feature at the base of an eroding cliff.
A headland that has been partly broken through by the sea to form a thin-roofed arch.
An isolated pinnacle of rock sticking out in the sea.
A small lump in the sea marking where a stack used to be.
Sandy beach
The type of beach found in sheltered bays, by generally weak constructive waves.
Pebble beach
The type of beach found near cliffs, by generally strong constructive waves.
A finger of new land made of sand, jutting out into the sea from the coast. This is a depositional landform.
A spit that joins an island to the mainland.
A spit that has grown across a bay.
Salt marsh
Low-lying coastal wetland mostly extending between high and low tide.
Hard engineering
Building artificial structures such as sea walls aimed at controlling natural processes. Sea wall, groynes and rock armour are all examples of this.
Soft engineering
A sustainable approach to managing coasts without using artificial structures. Beach nourishment, dune regeneration and marsh creation are all examples of this.
Capital city of the Maldives.
Average above sea level height for the Maldives.
The percentage of the Maldives that is below 1m above sea level.
The highest point above sea level in the Maldives.
The estimated year that the Maldives will be underwater.
390 thousand
The population of the Maldives.
$817 million
The amount of money that will be lost by the flooding of the Maldives.
$60 million
The money given to the Maldives by Japan in order to build a sea wall.
The average length of land that is eroded away from the Holderness Coast every year.
The distance of Easington gas terminal from the edge of the Holderness Coast.
The year Mappleton spent money on hard engineering.
£2 million
The amount of money the hard engineering at Mappleton cost.
The year a storm damaged Keyhaven Salt Marsh.
The year rock armour and beach nourishment were bought for Keyhaven Salt Marsh.
£5 million
The amount of money the sea defences at Keyhaven Salt Marsh cost.