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Involuntary Manslaughter

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R v Adomako (1994)
Established the four stage test for gross negligence.
R v Evans (2009)
When a person has created or contributed to the creation of a state of affairs which he knows, or ought reasonably to know, has become life threatening, a consequent duty on him to act by taking reasonable steps to save the other's life will normally arise
R v Lidar (2004)
Court of Appeal recognised the existence of subjective recklessness manslaughter. In order to be liable under this category, D must foresee the risk of serious injury as highly probable
Andrews v DPP (1937)
UDA manslaughter requires a degree of fault greater than negligence
DPP v Newbury (1977)
For UDA, the prosecution must prove; 1) D intentionally did an act, 2) Which was IN FACT unlawful, 3) Which was IN FACT dangerous, 4) Which did IN FACT and IN LAW cause the defendant's death
R v Lowe (1973)
Omissions are excluded from UDA manslaughter
R v Church (1966)
It is not enough that an unlawful act caused death. The unlawful act must be one that ‘all sober and reasonable people would inevitably recognise must subject the other person to… the risk of some (albeit not serious) harm.
R v Newbury and Jones (1977)
Provided that the defendant acted intentionally, he need not recognise its dangerousness
R v Bateman
Where purports to have a special knowledge they will be held to have such knowledge