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A process which results in chnage in behaviour or behaviour potential.
Classical conditioning
Where 1 stimulus or event predicts the occurrence of another. (Pavlov)
Processes of classical conditioning
Acquisition: delay, trace, simultaneous, backward conditioning.
Extinction (classical conditioning)
Where CS no longer predicts UCS. CR becomes weaker over time and gradually stops occurring.
Systematic desensitisation
Teaching relaxation techniques and proceed through hierarchy of feared objects through imaging. Invivo desensitisation.
Operant conditioning
Learning in which the probability of a response is changed by its consequences. (Skinner)
Consequences leading to increase of behaviour. (something is added)
Primary reinforcer
Satisfies biological needs. (Eg. Eating, drinking etc.)
Secondary reinforcer
Learned. (Eg. Money, praise, attention etc.)
Positive reinforcement
Presentation of reward. (Eg. Feeling more social when drinking, studying hard to get good marks)
Negative reinforcement
Withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus. (Eg. Wear sunnies to remove glare)
Escape conditioning (operant conditioning)
Response which allows you to escape from aversive stimulus. (Eg. Use umbrella to escape rain)
Avoidance conditioning (operant conditioning)
Response which allows you to avoid aversive stimulus. (Eg. Wear seatbelt to avoid beeping)
Any stimulus that decreases the occurrence of a behaviour.
Positive punishment
Presentation of aversive stimulus. (Eg. Smacking child for misbehaviour, glare when looking into sun)
Negative punishment
Withdrawal of pleasant stimulus. (Eg. Withholding a child's allowance, fines when speeding)
Health compromising behaviours learnt by operant conditioning
Consumption of fatty foods / alcohol, avoidance of exercise, excessive sun exposure.
Continuous schedules of reinforcement
Delivery of reinforcement after EVERY response. (Eg. Praise patient after each rehab exercise)
Partial schedules of reinforcement (ratio)
Delivery of reinforcement based on NUMBER of responses.
Fixed ratio schedule (partial)
Rewarded after a specific NUMBER of responses.
Variable ratio schedule (partial)
Rewarded after an average NUMBER of responses.
Partial schedules of reinforcement (interval)
Delivery of reinforcement based on TIME.
Fixed interval schedule (partial)
Rewarded after a specific period of TIME.
Variable interval schedule (partial)
Rewarded after an average period of TIME.
Limitations of classical and operant conditioning
Learning can occur without direct experience. May not recognise the role of cognition in learning.
Social learning theory
Learning new responses by watching the behaviour of another. (Bandura)
Benefits of modelling (social learning theory)
Can motivate patients and improve self-efficacy and confidence. (Eg. Observe someone being more sociable or looking better after quitting smoking or after doing regular exercise.
Modelling most influencial when...
Model is perceived as liked / respected. There are similarities between model and observer. Observer is rewarded for paying attention to model. Observer has CAPACITY to imitate behaviour.
Research designs
Longitudinal, cross-sectional and sequential design.
Longitudinal design (research)
Same individuals are observed / tested over time. Used to study individual differences. BUT cohort may shrink over time and can be very costly.
Cross-sectional design (research)
Groups of participants of different ages are observed at the ONE, same time. Used to study behavioural differences related to AGE changes. BUT these changes experienced by each cohort are confounded by social / political conditions of the cohort.
Sequential design (research)
Combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal design.
Cognitive development
4 stages / schemas. Learning proceeds by assimilation and accommodation. (Piaget)
Assimilation (cognitive development)
How new experiences are INCORPORATED into existing schemas. (Eg. Newborn sucking on whatever it sees)
Accommodation (cognitive development)
How new experiences cause existing schemas to CHANGE. (Eg. Consequences following new experience causes newborn to know its not safe to suck everything)
Sensorimotor stage (cognitive development)
1st stage. Infancy-2 y.o. Understand world through motor experience with objects. Object permanence develops. Beginning of symbolic thought.
Preoperational stage (cognitive development)
2nd stage. 2-7 y.o. Most rapid learning occurs here. Symbolic thought using WORDS and IMAGES. Characterised by animism, egocentrism, irreversability, centration.
Concrete operational stage (cognitive development)
3rd stage. 7-12 y.o. Can perform basic mental operations of tangible objects. Understands CONSERVATION. Transitive inference ability develops.
Formal operational stage (cognitive development)
4th stage. Adolescence onwards. Able to reason abstract situations. Can form HYPOTHESES and test them in thoughtful way.
Findings of Piaget's cognitive development theory
Exhaustively researched. 4 stages occur in same order cross-culturally. Each stage must be gone through successfully to proceed to the next stage.
Criticisms of Piaget's cognitive development theory
Skills are often acquired earlier than suggested. Development in each stage is inconsistent. Doesn't mention adult cognitive variation. Culture influences cognitive development.
Psychosocial development
8 stages. Personality develops by overcoming different 'crises'. It is how we view ourselves that we develop our personalities. (Erikson)
Infancy (psychosocial development)
1st stage. <1y.o. Basic trust vs mistrust.
Toddlerhood (psychosocial development)
2nd stage. 1-2y.o. Autonomy vs self-doubt.
Early childhood (psychosocial development)
3rd stage. 3-5y.o. Initiative vs guilt.
Middle childhood (psychosocial development)
4th stage. 6-12y.o. Industry/competence vs inferiority.
Adolescence (psychosocial development)
5th stage. 12-20y.o. Identity vs role confusion. 4 different stages: Identity diffusion, forceclosure, moratorium, identity achievement.
Early adulthood (psychosocial development)
6th stage. 24-40y.o. Intimacy vs isolation.
Middle adulthood (psychosocial development)
7th stage. 40-65y.o. Generativity vs stagnation.
Late adulthood (psychosocial development)
8th stage. 65+y.o. Ego integrity vs despair.
Findings of Erikson's psychosocial development theory
Encompasses entire life span. Emphasised conscious processes and social determinants of development. No stage needs to be successfully resolved to move on. Optimistic. Crises are sensitive periods.
Criticisms of Erikson's psychosocial development theory
A product of its tone and individualistic culture. Sexist, research results equivocal.
Influences on development
Normative influences. (Age-related biological changes, predictable social transition events) Non-normative influences. (unpredictable events)
Prenatal and perinatal development
1. Germinal stage (first 2 weeks after conception) 2. Embryonic stage (until week 8) 3. Foetal stage (week 9 til birth) 4. Birth
Risks for abnormal development
Genetic factors, teratogens, iatogenic factors, perinatal factors.
Critical issues in developmental psychology
Nature vs nurture. Critical vs sensitive periods. Continuity vs discontinuity. Stability vs change.
States of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension.
Environmental stimuli that 'pull' an organism toward a goal.
Expectancy x value theory
Goal-directed behaviour is determined by strength of the person's expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a gorl and by the incentive value the individual places on that goal.
Extrinsic motivation
Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment.
Intrinsic motivation
Performing an activity for its own sake
Psychodynamic views
Energy from unconscious motives are disguised and expressed through socially acceptable behaviours.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
From bottom: Physiological, safety, belonging, self-esteem, self-actualization.
Self-determination theory
Autonomy, competence and relatedness play roles in self-determination theory.
The process of starting, directing and maintaining physical and psychological activities. Psychological drives that propel us in a specific direction.
A state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain.
Psychoactive drugs
Drugs that act on the CNS to alter mood, cognition, behaviour.
Accelerate action of the CNS. (Eg. Cocaine, caffeine, nicotine etc.)
Slow down activity of the CNS. (Eg. Alcohol, opiates, sedatives, anaesthetics etc.)
Other psychoactive drugs
Reason? Not all psychoactive drugs fit neatly into just one category. (Eg. Ectasy, MDMA)
Prevalence of young people's drug use
In order: alcohol (67.5%), marijuana/cannabis (21.5%), tobacco (11.9%), ectasy (4.7%), Meth (speed), cocaine, inhalants, injected drugs, heroin, any illicit (25.1%)
Prevalence of substances use disorders
16-24: 12.7%. Male: 15.5%. Female: 9.8%
Reasons for using drugs
Escape from problems, alleviate boredom, feel for confidence, ease physical pain.
Reasons to not use drugs
Relating to lifestyle aspirations / relationships, practicalities of being a user, physical / psychological effects of drugs.
Individual determinants of experimental substance use
1. Proximal (refusal skills) 2. Distal (states / behavioural skills. Eg. Social, academic skills) 3. Ultimate (personality traits, intrapersonal characteristics, biological dispositions. Eg. emotional instability, extraversion, impaired cognitive functioning)
Thorley's model of drug-related harm
Harms from regular use, intoxication and dependence.
Acute effects of drug use. Problems that arise vary depending on drug used, the person using the drug and the circumstances in which the drug was used.
Regular use
Problems: Increase risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer of the liver, cancer of the throat, both acute and chronic pancreatitis, hypertension.
Substance dependence
A condition produced by repeated consumption of a natural / synthetic substance in which the person has become physically and psychologically dependent on the substance.
Physical dependence
A state in which the body has adjusted to a substance and has incorporated it into the 'normal' functioning of the body's tissues.
The process by which the body increasingly adapts to a substance and requires larger and larger doses to achieve same effect. At some point, these increases reach a plateau.
Unpleasant physical and psychological symptoms people experience when they discontinue using a substance on which body is physically dependent. Symptoms include anxiety, irritability, intense cravings, hallucinations, nausea, headache and tremors.
Criteria for substance-related disorders
Impaire control over substance use, social impairment, risky use, pharmacological criteria.
Costs of drug use in Australian mortality
Drugs responsible for 20% of deaths in AUS. 82% caused by tobacco. 13% caused by alcohol. 4% caused by illicit drugs.
Years of life lost
Relies on mortality data, does not take into account harm where death doesn't occur. Calculated by multiplying each death by the number of years the person could have been expected to live.
Disability adjusted life years
Combines both fatal and non-fatal outcomes in a single measure.
DALYs for 15-24y.o.
Alcohol dependence, harmful drug use, road traffic accidents. Each is responsible for 9% of the total cost.
Prevalence of older persons' substance use disorders in AUS
Declines with age. 65+y.o. have less than 1%.
Reasons for decline in substance use disorders among older people
Increased mortality among those with history of drug/alcohol use disorders. May also be driven by marriage, mortgages and children.
Strategies to improve treatment of prescription drug abuse in older adults
Brief intervention (1+ conseling sessions), interventions (counselling sessions in presence of family / friends), motivational conseling (intensive meetings with counselor), specialized treatment (detoxification, rehab), maintenance treatment (psychotherapy, group counseling, self-help).
Federal harm minimisation policy
1. Supply reduction and control. 2. Demand reduction (health promotion) 3. Harm reduction (needle exchange)
Stress of living
Physiological stress reactions, psychological stress reactions, coping with stress, positive effects of stress
Physiological stress reactions
Emergency reactions to acute threats (Cannon, Taylor), the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) (Selye)
Psychological stress reactions
Major life events, traumatic events, daily hassles.
Coping with stress
Appraisal of stress, types of coping responses, modifying coping strategies, social support as a coping resource.
Pattern of specific / nonspecific responses an organism makes to stimulus events that disturb its equilibrium or exceed its ability to cope.
An internal / external event or stimulus that induces stress.
Distress vs eustress
Bad stress vs good stress.
Acute stress
Transient state of arousal with typically clear onset / offset patterns.
Chronic stress
Continuous state of arousal in which an individual perceives demands as greater than inner / outer resources available for dealing with them.
Flight or fight response
A sequences of INTERNAL activities triggered when an organism is faced with a threat. Body prepares for combat / struggle / running away to safety. (Walter Cannon)
Tend and befriend
A response to stressors that is hypothesised to be typical for females. (Shelley Taylor)
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
The pattern of nonspecific adaptational PHYSIOLOGICAL mechanisms that occurs in response to continuing threat by almost any serious stressor. (Hans Selye)
3 stages of the GAS
1. Alarm reactions. (brief periods of bodily arousal in prep for vigorous activity. 2. Resistance (moderate arousal, body can endure and resist effects of stressors) 3. Exhaustion. (if stressor is long lasting or intense)
Primary appraisal : stages in stable decision making or cognitive appraisal
1. Appraising the challenge. 2. Surveying the alternatives. 3. Weighing alternatives. 4. Deliberating about commitment. 5. Adhering despite negative feedback.
Components of the primary appraisal process
1. Motivational relevence. (extent to which event is relevant to goals) 2. Motivational congruence (extent to which situation is congruent with current goals)
Stress is likely in situations...
Where relevance is high and congruence is low.
Secondary appraisal processes (coping potential)
Internal resources (strength, determination). External resources (social support, money).
Appraisal-related emotions
Loss / threat (sadness, depression, despair, hopelessness), threat (anxiety, fear, anger, jealousy), challenge (worry, hope, confidence).
Secondary appraisals / related emotional responses
1. Internal / external accountability. 2. Problem-focused coping potential. 3. Emotion-focused coping potential. 4. Future expectancy concerning situational change.
Problem-directed coping
Changing stressor / one's relationship to it through direct action or problem-solving activities.
Emotion-focused coping
Change self through activities that make one feel better, but DO NOT CHANGE the stressor.
Stress / infectious disease
Higher the stress, the more likely immune system is low.