Level 21 Level 23
Level 22

Unit 22


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absorb
If a substance absorbs a liquid, it takes it in through its surface and holds it.
breach
to make an opening in a wall or fence, especially in order to attack someone or something behind it
bury your head in the sand
to refuse to think about unpleasant facts, although they will have an influence on your situation
carbon footprint
Someone’s carbon footprint is a measurement of the amount of carbon dioxide that their activities produce.
commitment
when you are willing to give your time and energy to something that you believe in
concede
to admit that something is true, even though you do not want to
contrary
opposite
conversely
used to introduce something that is different to something you have just said
costly
expensive
cumulative
reached by gradually adding one thing after another
decline
when something becomes less in amount, importance, quality, or strength
decrease
a reduction
defective
describes something that has a fault in it and does not work correctly
dengue fever
a serious illness that you can get if a mosquito bites you, and it is infected with a particular virus
densely
with a lot of things close together
dire
very serious or bad
displace
to make someone or something leave their usual place or position
drop
when the level or amount of something becomes less
drought
a long period when there is no rain and people do not have enough water
dull
not bright
emission
when gas, heat, light, etc is sent out into the air, or an amount of gas, heat, light, etc that is sent out
flooding
when an area is covered with water, especially from rain
fluctuation
a change, especially continuous and between one level or thing and another
global warming
when the air around the world becomes warmer because of pollution
gloomy
dark in an unpleasant way
go to great lengths
to try very hard to achieve something
greenhouse gas
a gas which causes the greenhouse effect, especially carbon dioxide
heat wave
a period of time such as a few weeks when the weather is much hotter than usual
humidity
a measurement of how much water there is in the air
hurricane
a violent storm with very strong winds
ice cap
a thick layer of ice that permanently covers an area of land
increase
when the number, size, or amount of something gets bigger
infrastructure
the basic systems, such as transport and communication, that a country or organization uses in order to work effectively
la niña
the cooling of the water in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean that happens every few years and that affects the weather in many places
long-range forecast
a forecast for a long time into the future, or across a long distance
malaria
a serious disease that you can get in hot countries if a mosquito bites you
melt
If something melts, it changes from a solid into a liquid because of heat and if you melt something, you heat it until it becomes liquid.
el niño
an unusual ocean current along the coast of Peru every 2–10 years, which kills large numbers of sea organisms and causes noticeable and often severe changes in weather conditions in many areas of the world
paint a picture
to describe a situation or person
prolong
to make something last longer
reduction
when something is reduced
rise
to increase in level
sluggish
moving or working more slowly than usual
species
a group of plants or animals which share similar characteristics
stark
unpleasantly clear and obvious
switch
a change
tide
the regular rise and fall in the level of the sea
torrential
Torrential rain is very heavy rain.
vulnerable
easy to hurt or attack physically or emotionally
wipe sth out
to destroy something completely