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FAR general definitions 1

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the Federal Aviation Administrator or any person to whom he has delegated his authority in the matter concerned.
Aerodynamic coefficients
non-dimensional coefficients for aerodynamic forces and moments.
Air traffic clearance
an authorization by air traffic control, for the purpose of preventing collision between known aircraft, for an aircraft to proceed under specified traffic conditions within controlled airspace.
Air traffic control
a service operated by appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic.
Air traffic
aircraft operating in the air or on an airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas.
Aircraft engine
an engine that is used or intended to be used for propelling aircraft. It includes turbosuperchargers, appurtenances, and accessories necessary for its functioning, but does not include propellers.
a device that is used or intended to be used for flight in the air.
the fuselage, booms, nacelles, cowlings, fairings, airfoil surfaces (including rotors but excluding propellers and rotating airfoils of engines), and landing gear of an aircraft and their accessories and controls.
an engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft heavier than air, that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings.
an area of land or water that is used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft, and includes its buildings and facilities, if any.
an engine-driven lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered.
Alert Area
area established to inform pilots of a specific area wherein a high volume of pilot training or an unusual type of aeronautical activity is conducted.
Alternate airport
an airport at which an aircraft may land if a landing at the intended airport becomes inadvisable.
Altitude engine
a reciprocating aircraft engine having a rated takeoff power that is producible from sea level to an established higher altitude.
Amateur rocket
an unmanned rocket that: (1) Is propelled by a motor or motors having a combined total impulse of 889,600 Newton-seconds (200,000 pound-seconds) or less and (2) Cannot reach an altitude greater than 150 kilometers (93.2 statute miles) above the earth's surface.
any instrument, mechanism, equipment, part, apparatus, appurtenance, or accessory, including communications equipment, that is used or intended to be used in operating or controlling an aircraft in flight, is installed in or attached to the aircraft, and is not part of an airframe, engine, or propeller.
Approved, unless used with reference to another person
approved by the FAA or any person to whom the FAA has delegated its authority in the matter concerned, or approved under the provisions of a bilateral agreement between the United States and a foreign country or jurisdiction.
Area navigation (RNAV)
a method of navigation that permits aircraft operations on any desired flight path.
Area navigation (RNAV) route
an ATS route based on RNAV that can be used by suitably equipped aircraft.
Armed Forces
the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, including their regular and reserve components and members serving without component status.
a rotorcraft flight condition in which the lifting rotor is driven entirely by action of the air when the rotorcraft is in motion.
Auxiliary rotor
a rotor that serves either to counteract the effect of the main rotor torque on a rotorcraft or to maneuver the rotorcraft about one or more of its three principal axes.
a lighter-than-air aircraft that is not engine driven, and that sustains flight through the use of either gas buoyancy or an airborne heater.
Brake horsepower
the power delivered at the propeller shaft (main drive or main output) of an aircraft engine.
Calibrated airspeed
the indicated airspeed of an aircraft, corrected for position and instrument error. Calibrated airspeed is equal to true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level.
Canard configuration
a configuration in which the span of the forward wing is substantially less than that of the main wing.
a forward wing which may be a fixed, movable, or variable geometry surface, with or without control surfaces.
Category for certification of aircraft
a grouping of aircraft based upon intended use or operating limitations. Examples include: transport, normal, utility, acrobatic, limited, restricted, and provisional.
Category for airmen
a broad classification of aircraft. Examples include: airplane, rotorcraft, glider, and lighter-than-air
the height above the earth's surface of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena that is reported as “broken”, “overcast”, or “obscuration”, and not classified as “thin” or “partial”
Civil aircraft
aircraft other than public aircraft
Class for aircraft
a broad grouping of aircraft having similar characteristics of propulsion, flight, or landing. Examples include: airplane, rotorcraft, glider, balloon, landplane, and seaplane.
Class for airmen
a classification of aircraft within a category having similar operating characteristics. Examples include: single engine, multiengine, land, water, gyroplane, helicopter, airship, and free balloon
Clearway: For turbine engine powered airplanes certificated after August 29, 1959
an area beyond the runway, not less than 500 feet wide, centrally located about the extended centerline of the runway, and under the control of the airport authorities. The clearway is expressed in terms of a clearway plane, extending from the end of the runway with an upward slope not exceeding 1.25 percent, above which no object nor any terrain protrudes. However, threshold lights may protrude above the plane if their height above the end of the runway is 26 inches or less and if they are located to each side of the runway.
Clearway: For turbine engine powered airplanes certificated after September 30, 1958, but before August 30, 1959
an area beyond the takeoff runway extending no less than 300 feet on either side of the extended centerline of the runway, at an elevation no higher than the elevation of the end of the runway, clear of all fixed obstacles, and under the control of the airport authorities.
Climbout speed, with respect to rotorcraft
a referenced airspeed which results in a flight path clear of the height-velocity envelope during initial climbout.
Configuration, Maintenance, and Procedures (CMP) document
a document approved by the FAA that contains minimum configuration, operating, and maintenance requirements, hardware life-limits, and Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) constraints necessary for an airplane-engine combination to meet ETOPS type design approval requirements.
Consensus standard
for light-sport aircraft applies to aircraft design, production, and airworthiness. It includes, but is not limited to, standards for aircraft design and performance, required equipment, manufacturer quality assurance systems, production acceptance test procedures, operating instructions, maintenance and inspection procedures, identification and recording of major repairs and major alterations, and continued airworthiness.
Controlled airspace
an airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification.
Controlled Firing Area
established to contain activities which would be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft.
a person assigned to perform duty in an aircraft during flight time.
Critical altitude
The maximum altitude at which, in standard atmosphere, it is possible to maintain, at a specified rotational speed, a specified power or a specified manifold pressure.
Critical engine
the engine whose failure would most adversely affect the performance or handling qualities of an aircraft.
Enhanced flight visibility (EFV)
the average forward horizontal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight, at which prominent topographical objects may be clearly distinguished and identified by day or night by a pilot using an enhanced flight vision system.
Enhanced flight vision system (EFVS)
an electronic means to provide a display of the forward external scene topography (the natural or manmade features of a place or region especially in a way to show their relative positions and elevation) through the use of imaging sensors, such as a forward looking infrared, millimeter wave radiometry, millimeter wave radar, low light level image intensifying.
Equivalent airspeed
the calibrated airspeed of an aircraft corrected for adiabatic compressible flow for the particular altitude.
External load
a load that is carried, or extends, outside of the aircraft fuselage.
External-load attaching
the structural components used to attach an external load to an aircraft, including external-load containers, the backup structure at the attachment points, and any quick-release device used to jettison the external load.
Final takeoff speed
the speed of the airplane that exists at the end of the takeoff path in the en route configuration with one engine inoperative.
Fire resistant for fluid equipment, wiring, air ducts, fittings, and powerplant controls
The capacity to perform the intended functions under the heat and other conditions likely to occur when there is a fire at the place concerned.
Fire resistant with respect to structure
the capacity to withstand the heat associated with fire at least as well as aluminum alloy in dimensions appropriate for the purpose for which they are used
Fireproof for materials and parts used to confine fire in a designated fire zone
the capacity to withstand at least as well as steel in dimensions appropriate for the purpose for which they are used, the heat produced when there is a severe fire of extended duration in that zone
Fireproof for other materials and parts
the capacity to withstand the heat associated with fire at least as well as steel in dimensions appropriate for the purpose for which they are used.