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FAR general definitions 2


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Flame resistant
not susceptible to combustion to the point of propagating a flame, beyond safe limits, after the ignition source is removed.
Flammable for a fluid or gas
susceptible to igniting readily or to exploding.
Flap extended speed
the highest speed permissible with wing flaps in a prescribed extended position.
Flash resistant
not susceptible to burning violently when ignited.
Flight level
a level of constant atmospheric pressure related to a reference datum of 29.92 inches of mercury. Each is stated in three digits that represent hundreds of feet.
Flight plan
specified information, relating to the intended flight of an aircraft, that is filed orally or in writing with air traffic control.
Flight simulation training device
a flight simulator or a flight training device.
Flight time for a glider without self-launch capability
pilot time that commences when the glider is towed for the purpose of flight and ends when the glider comes to rest after landing.
Flight time
Pilot time that commences when an aircraft moves under its own power for the purpose of flight and ends when the aircraft comes to rest after landing
Flight training device
a replica of aircraft instruments, equipment, panels, and controls in an open flight deck area or an enclosed aircraft cockpit replica. It includes the equipment and computer programs necessary to represent aircraft (or set of aircraft) operations in ground and flight conditions having the full range of capabilities of the systems installed in the device as described in part 60 of this chapter and the qualification performance standard (QPS) for a specific FTD qualification level.
Flight visibility
the average forward horizontal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight, at which prominent unlighted objects may be seen and identified by day and prominent lighted objects may be seen and identified by night.
Flightcrew member
a pilot, flight engineer, or flight navigator assigned to duty in an aircraft during flight time.
Forward wing
a forward lifting surface of a canard configuration or tandem-wing configuration airplane. The surface may be a fixed, movable, or variable geometry surface, with or without control surfaces.
Full flight simulator
a replica of a specific type or make, model, and series aircraft cockpit.
Glider
a heavier-than-air aircraft, that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its lifting surfaces and whose free flight does not depend principally on an engine.
Go-around power or thrust setting
the maximum allowable in-flight power or thrust setting identified in the performance data.
Ground visibility
prevailing horizontal visibility near the earth's surface as reported by the United States National Weather Service or an accredited observer.
Gyrodyne
a rotorcraft whose rotors are normally engine-driven for takeoff, hovering, and landing, and for forward flight through part of its speed range, and whose means of propulsion, consisting usually of conventional propellers, is independent of the rotor system.
Gyroplane
a rotorcraft whose rotors are not engine-driven, except for initial starting, but are made to rotate by action of the air when the rotorcraft is moving; and whose means of propulsion, consisting usually of conventional propellers, is independent of the rotor system.
Helicopter
a rotorcraft that, for its horizontal motion, depends principally on its engine-driven rotors.
Heliport
an area of land, water, or structure used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of helicopters.
Idle thrust
the jet thrust obtained with the engine power control level set at the stop for the least thrust position at which it can be placed.
IFR conditions
weather conditions below the minimum for flight under visual flight rules.
IFR over-the-top, with respect to the operation of aircraft
the operation of an aircraft over-the-top on an IFR flight plan when cleared by air traffic control to maintain “VFR conditions” or “VFR conditions on top”.
Indicated airspeed
the speed of an aircraft as shown on its pitot static airspeed indicator calibrated to reflect standard atmosphere adiabatic compressible flow at sea level uncorrected for airspeed system errors.
Instrument approach procedure
a series of predetermined maneuvers by reference to flight instruments with specified protection from obstacles and assurance of navigation signal reception capability.
Instrument
a device using an internal mechanism to show visually or aurally the attitude, altitude, or operation of an aircraft or aircraft part. It includes electronic devices for automatically controlling an aircraft in flight.
Kite
a framework, covered with paper, cloth, metal, or other material, intended to be flown at the end of a rope or cable, and having as its only support the force of the wind moving past its surfaces.
Landing gear extended speed
the maximum speed at which an aircraft can be safely flown with the landing gear extended.
Landing gear operating speed
the maximum speed at which the landing gear can be safely extended or retracted.
Large aircraft
aircraft of more than 12,500 pounds, maximum certificated takeoff weight.
Light-sport aircraft
an aircraft, other than a helicopter or powered-lift that, since its original certification, has continued to meet the following:
Lighter-than-air aircraft
aircraft that can rise and remain suspended by using contained gas weighing less than the air that is displaced by the gas.
Load factor
the ratio of a specified load to the total weight of the aircraft. The specified load is expressed in terms of any of the following: aerodynamic forces, inertia forces, or ground or water reactions.
Long-range communication system (LRCS)
A system that uses satellite relay, data link, high frequency, or another approved communication system which extends beyond line of sight.
Long-range navigation system (LRNS)
An electronic navigation unit that is approved for use under instrument flight rules as a primary means of navigation, and has at least one source of navigational input, such as inertial navigation system, global positioning system, Omega/very low frequency, or Loran C.
Mach number
the ratio of true airspeed to the speed of sound.
Main rotor
the rotor that supplies the principal lift to a rotorcraft.
Maintenance
inspection, overhaul, repair, preservation, and the replacement of parts, but excludes preventive maintenance.
Major alteration
an alteration not listed in the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller specifications—
Major repair
a repair: (1) That, if improperly done, might appreciably affect weight, balance, structural strength, performance, powerplant operation, flight characteristics, or other qualities affecting airworthiness; or (2) That is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations.
Manifold pressure
absolute pressure as measured at the appropriate point in the induction system and usually expressed in inches of mercury.
Maximum engine overtorque
the maximum torque of the free power turbine rotor assembly, the inadvertent occurrence of which, for periods of up to 20 seconds, will not require rejection of the engine from service, or any maintenance action other than to correct the cause.
Maximum speed for stability characteristics
a speed that may not be less than a speed midway between maximum operating limit speed (VMO/MMO) and demonstrated flight diving speed (VDF/MDF), except that, for altitudes where the Mach number is the limiting factor, it need not exceed the Mach number at which effective speed warning occurs.
Medical certificate
acceptable evidence of physical fitness on a form prescribed by the Administrator.
Military operations area
airspace established outside Class A airspace to separate or segregate certain nonhazardous military activities from IFR Traffic and to identify for VFR traffic where theses activities are conducted.
Minimum descent altitude
the lowest altitude specified in an instrument approach procedure, expressed in feet above mean sea level, to which descent is authorized on final approach or during circle-to-land maneuvering until the pilot sees the required visual references for the heliport or runway of intended landing.
Minor alteration
an alteration other than a major alteration.
Minor repair
a repair other than a major repair.
National defense airspace
airspace established by a regulation prescribed, or an order issued under, 49 U.S.C. 40103(b)(3).
Navigable airspace
airspace at and above the minimum flight altitudes prescribed by or under this chapter, including airspace needed for safe takeoff and landing.
Night
the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in the Air Almanac, converted to local time.
Nonprecision approach procedure
a standard instrument approach procedure in which no electronic glide slope is provided.
Operate, with respect to aircraft
use, cause to use or authorize to use aircraft, for the purpose (except as provided in § 91.13 of this chapter) of air navigation including the piloting of aircraft, with or without the right of legal control (as owner, lessee, or otherwise).
Operational control, with respect to a flight
the exercise of authority over initiating, conducting or terminating a flight.
Over-the-top
above the layer of clouds or other obscuring phenomena forming the ceiling.
Overseas air commerce
the carriage by aircraft of persons or property for compensation or hire, or the carriage of mail by aircraft, or the operation or navigation of aircraft in the conduct or furtherance of a business or vocation, in commerce between a place in any State of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and any place in a territory or possession of the United States; or between a place in a territory or possession of the United States, and a place in any other territory or possession of the United States.
Overseas air transportation
the carriage by aircraft of persons or property as a common carrier for compensation or hire, or the carriage of mail by aircraft, in commerce:
Parachute
a device used or intended to be used to retard the fall of a body or object through the air.
Person
an individual, firm, partnership, corporation, company, association, joint-stock association, or governmental entity. It includes a trustee, receiver, assignee, or similar representative of any of them.
Pilot in command
the person who: (1) Has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight; (2) Has been designated as pilot in command before or during the flight; and (3) Holds the appropriate category, class, and type rating, if appropriate, for the conduct of the flight.
Pilotage
navigation by visual reference to landmarks.
Pitch setting
the propeller blade setting as determined by the blade angle measured in a manner, and at a radius, specified by the instruction manual for the propeller.
Positive control
control of all air traffic, within designated airspace, by air traffic control.
Portable oxygen concentrator
a medical device that separates oxygen from other gasses in ambient air and dispenses this concentrated oxygen to the user.