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Electron Shells


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Atomic number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass number
The total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Chemical symbols
Abbreviations that represent the names of elements.
neutral atoms
contain an equal number of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons.
Ions
atoms which carry a positive or negative charge
Positive ions
Atoms which more protons than electrons.
Negative ions
Atoms which have more electrons than protons.
Electron shells
orbits of electrons around the nucleus, each with higher energy levels than the last.
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
Relative Atomic Mass
The average mass of an atom, taking into account the relative abundances of all the naturally occurring isotopes of the element.
Shell diagrams
The distribution of electrons in their electron shells shown as circles.
Valence shell
The outermost occupied shell of uncharged atoms.
Emission spectrum
The pattern of coloured lines unique to each element when observed through a spectrometer.