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between-subject comparisons
Within a study, comparing one group of individuals to a different group.
case study
An intensive study of one person.
control group
A group within an experiment that does not experience the experimental manipulation.
The tendency of two variables to change together. If one goes up as the other goes up, the correlation is positive; if one goes up as the other goes down, the correlation is negative.
correlation coefficient (r)
A number that expresses both the size and the direction of a correlation, varying from +1.00 (perfect positive correlation) to -1.00 (perfect negative correlation).
correlational studies
Studies in which the investigator analyzes the relationships among variables that were in place before the study, without manipulating those variables.
A step at the end of an experiment in which the researcher explains the study's purpose and design to each participant and undoes any manipulations to participants' beliefs or state.
demand characteristics
The cues in a study that might tell a research participant what behaviors are expected or desirable in that setting.
dependent variable
The variable that is measured or recorded in an experiment.
descriptive statistics
Mathematical procedures that allow a researcher to characterize a data pattern; these procedures include measures of central tendency and of variability.
double-blind design
The technique of assigning participants to experimental conditions while keeping both the participants and the researchers unaware of who is assigned to which group.
effect size
The magnitude of the difference between groups in a study, often computed by subtracting the mean of one group's scores from mean the other's scores.
empirical claims
Claims that can be true or false depending on the facts.
A study of causal relationships in which the researcher manipulates an independent variable to examine its effect on a dependent variable.
experimental group
The group within an experiment that experiences the researcher's manipulation of the independent variable.