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hydrogen bond
a strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron-deficient hydrogen atom (O-H, F-H or N-H) and a lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom (H-O: H-F: or H-N:) on a different molecul
a reaction with water or aqueous hydroxide ions that breaks a chemical compound into two compounds
the first step in a radical substitution in which the free radicals are generated by ultraviolet radiation
intermolecular force
an attractive force between neighbouring molecules. Intermolecular forces can be van der Waals' forces (induced dipole-dipole forces), permanent dipole-dipole-forces or hydrogen bonds.
a positively or negatively charged atom or (covalently bonded) group of atoms (a molecular ion).
ionic bond
the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions
first ionisation energy
the energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
second ionisation energy
the energy required to remove an electron from each ion in a mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form a mole of gaseous 2+ ions.
successive ionisation energy
a measure of the energy required to remove each electron in turn
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons and different masses
le Chatelier's principle
when a system in dynamic equilibrium is subjected to a change, the position of equilibrium will shift to minimise the change.
limiting reagent
the substance in a chemical reaction that runs out first
lone pair
an outer-shell pair of electrons that is not involved in chemical bonding
mass (nucleon) number
the number of particles (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus
a sequence of steps showng the path taken by electrons in a reaction
metallic bonding
electrostatic attraction between metal ions and delocalised electrons
Molar Mass (M)
The mass of one mole of any substance, expressed in grams per mole.
molar volume
the volume per mole of a gas. the units of molar volume are dm^3 mol^-1. At room temperature and pressure the molar volume is approximately 24.0 dm cubed per mol
the amount of substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12 isotope
molecular formula
the number of atoms of each element in a molecule
molecular ion, M+
the positive ion formed in mass spectrometry when a molecule loses an electron
a small group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
a small molecule that combines with many other monomers to form a polymer
a system of naming compounds
an atom (or group of atoms) that is attracted to an electron-deficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond