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nucleophilic substitution
a type of substitution reaction in which a nucleophile is attracted to an electron-defficient centre or atom, where it donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
loss of electrons or increase in oxidation number
oxidation number
a measure of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element. Oxidation numbers are derived from a set of rules.
oxidising agent
a reagent that oxidises (takes electrons from) another species
percentage yield
% yield = (actual amount in mol of product/ theoretical amount in mol of product) x 100
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table. Elements show trends in properties across a period
a regular periodic variation of properties of elements with atomic number and position in the Periodic Table
permanent dipole
a small charge difference across a bond resulting from a difference in the electronegativities of the bonded atoms
permanent dipole-dipole force
an attractive force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring polar molecules
the reactive part of a double bond formed above and below the plane of the bonded atoms by sideways overlap of p-orbitals
polar covalent bond
a bond with permanent dipole
polar molecule
a molecule with an overall dipole, taking into account any dipoles across bonds
a long molecular chain built up from monmer units
precipitation reaction
the formation of a solid from a solution during a chemical reaction. Precipitates are often formed when two aqueous solutions are mixed together.
principle quantum number, n
a number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital, which increases with distance from the nucleus. The sets of orbitals with the same n value are referred to as electron shells or ener
the two repeated steps in radical substitution that build up the products in a chain reaction
a species with an unpaired electron
radical substitution
a type of substitution reaction in which a radical replaces a different atom or group of atoms
rate of reaction
the change in concentration of a reactant or product in a given time
redox reaction
a reaction in which both reduction and oxidation take place
reducing agent
a reagent that reduces (adds electrons to) another species
the continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes place without the contents of the flask boiling dry
relative atomic mass
the weigted mean mass of an atom of an element compared to one-twelth of the mass of an atom of carbon 12
relative formula mass
the weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with one-twelth of the mass of an atom of carbon 12
relative isotopic mass
the mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelth of the mass of an atom of carbon 12