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relative molecular mass
the weighted mean mass of a molecule compared with one-twelth of the mass of an atom of carbon 12
repeat unit
a specific arrangement of atoms that occurs in the structure over and over again, repaet units are included in brackets, outside of which is the symbol n.
a chemical compound formed from an acid when an H+ ion from the acid has been replaced by a metal ion or another positive ion, such as the ammonium ion.
saturated hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon with single bonds only
a group of atomic orbitals with the same principle quantum number, n. Also known as a main energy level.
simple molecular lattice
a three dimensional structure of molecules, bonded together by weak intermolecular forces
skeletal formula
a simplified organic formula, with hydrogen atoms removed from alkyl chains, leaving just a carbon skeleton and associated functional groups
any type of particle that takes part in a chemical reaction
specific heat capacity, c
the energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1degree C.
spectator ions
ions that are present but take no part in a chemical reaction
standard conditions
a presse of 100kPa (1 atmosphere), a stated temperature, usuall 298 K (25degrees C), and a concentrationof 1 mol dm^-3 (for reactions with aqueous solutions).
standard solution
a solution of a known concentration. Standard solutions are usually used in titrations to determine unknown information about another substance.
standard state
the physical state of a substance under the standard conditions of 100kPa (1 atmosphere) and 298 K (25 degrees C).
compounds with the same structural formula but with a different arragement of atoms in space.
the molar relationship between the relative quantities of substances taking place in a reaction
the second layer of the Earth's atmosphere, containing the ozone layer, about 10 km to 50 km above the Earth's surface.
structural formula
a formula showing the minimal detail for the arrangement of atoms in a molecule
structural isomers
molecules with the same molecular formula but with different arrangements of atoms
a group of the same type of atomic orbitals (s, p, d or f) within a shell.
substitution reaction
a reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms
the step at the end of a radical substitution when two radicals combine to form a molecule.
thermal decomposition
the breaking up of a chemical substance with heat into at least two chemical substances
the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, extending from the Earth's surface up to about 7km (above the poles) and to about 20km (above the tropics).
unsaturated hydrocarbon
a hydrocarbon containing carbon-carbon multiple bonds
van der Waals' forces
very weak attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules.