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Organism
Anything that has or has once had all the chacteristics of life
Life Processes
All living things must be able to do these / MRS GREN
Movement
An action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place (an example of a life process)
Reproduction
Producing offspring (an example of a life process)
Sensitivity
The ability to detect changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make responses (an example of a life process)
Growth
A permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both (an example of a life process)
Respiration
A series of chemical reactions in cells that release energy for the cell to use (an example of a life process)
Excretion
The removal of waste products of metabolism from the body (an example of a life process)
Nutrition
The obtaining or making of food by living organisms (an example of a life process)
MRS GREN
A mnemonic to remember the 7 basic life processes that all living things carry out (each letter is the starting letter of a life process)
Cell
Basic structural unit of a living organism (that possesses its characteristics)
Specialised
A cell adapted in size and shape for the specific job that it does
Function
Job
Root hair cells
Microscopic cells that increases the surface area for absorption of minerals and water by plant roots
Micro
Small
Microscope
Devise used by scientists to look at small things in much greater detail
Robert Hooke
First person to study tissues using a microscope (he came up with the word 'cell')
Nucleus
Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell
Cytoplasm
Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes
Cell membrane
Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
Mitochondria
Organelle that carries out respiration in a cell
Chloroplast
Found in plant cells, this is the site where photosynthesis happens
Chlorophyll
A green pigment found in chloroplasts which absorbs energy from sunlight for photosynthesis
Cell Wall
Tough, non-living layer made of cellulose and surrounds the membrane of a plant cell
Vacuole
Provides the plant cell with support when full of sap
Tissue
Group of similar cells working together for a common purpose
Fat tissue
Tissue found around delicate issues such as the heart and kidneys
Nervous tissue
Tissue found in the spine and in organs that move or beat
Muscle tissue
Tissue consisting of long muscle cells that can contract, either on its own or when stimulated by nerve impulses
Xylem
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from the roots to the rest of the plant
Phloem
Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant
Organ
A group of tissues that work together
Heart
An organ that pumps blood throughout blood vessels, in repeated rhythmic contractions
Brain
Organ of the central nervous system where information is processed and integrated
Diaphragm
Organ (not the lungs) that functions in breathing
Skin
Biggest organ of the human body
Lungs
Organs involved in breathing (oxygen in breathed in for respiration; carbon dioxide is breathed out)
Kidney
Organ that cleans blood and make urine
Stomach
An organ of the digestive system that stores food and performs preliminary steps of digestion
Small intestine
Organ where most digestion and food absorption takes place
Large intestine
Organ that absorbs water from indigestible food matter
Liver
The largest internal organ in the vertebrate body (Performs diverse functions, such as producing bile, preparing nitrogenous wastes for disposal, and detoxifying poisonous chemicals in the blood)
Leaf
The main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants
Photosynthesis
The process by which plants make their own food using light, carbon dioxide and water.
Stem
A vascular plant organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes that support the leaves and reproductive structures
Root
An organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and minerals from the soil
Organ system
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
Circulatory system
Transportation of blood and minerals within it to the rest of the body
Digestive System
Breaks down food into soluble material, which can be used by the body
Excretory system
Filters toxic waste from the blood
Urine
A waste liquid excreted from the body
Faeces
The solid waste of the digestive tract
Nervous system
Coordinate the body's actions through nerves and muscles
Organ transplant
Replacing an unhealthy organ with a healthy one
Transplanted Organ (precautions)
1.Close match of tissue type of donor 2.Pateint 'zapped' with radiation to stop white blood cells being produced 3.Have to have sterile conditions
Donor
Someone who donates an organ or tissue to somebody else
Biopsy
Removal of a piece of tissue so that a doctor can look at the cells in it to see if there is a problem
Diagnosis
A doctor's conclusion about what an illness is
Pathologist
A doctor trained to look at organs and tissues to see if they are diseased
Evidence
Anything that supports an idea or a belief
Prediction
What you think will happen
Apparatus
Equipment
Method
Instructions for an experiment
Results
Measurements or observations that are recorded
Conclusion
Explanation of results