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Unit 7 Grammar *


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en + material
in + material/made of...
Pour faire du tennis mon père avait une raquette en bois et un maillot en coton.
To play tennis my father had a racket made of wood and a sports shirt made of cotton.
before the verb
position of pronouns in French
me/m'
me (direct object pronoun)
te/t'
you (sg) (direct object pronoun)
le/l'
him/it (m) (direct object pronoun)
la/l'
her/it (f) (direct object pronoun)
nous
us (direct object pronoun)
vous
you (pl/pol) (direct object pronoun)
les
them (direct object pronoun)
Est-ce que tu prends le train pour rentrer à la maison? Oui, je le prends tous les jours.
Do you (sg) take the train to return home? Yes, I take it every day.
Est-ce que vous voulez les sandales? Non, nous ne les voulons pas.
Do you (pl) want the sandals? No, we do not want them.
Est-ce que tu as trouvé ton pantalon? Oui, je l'ai trouvé!
Did you (sg) find your trousers? Yes, I found them!
me/m'
to/for me (indirect object pronoun)
te/t'
to/for you (sg) (indirect object pronoun)
lui
to/for him/to/for her (indirect object pronoun)
nous
to/for us (indirect object pronoun)
vous
to/for you (pl) (indirect object pronoun)
leur
to/for them (indirect object pronoun)
Elle lui a fait son lit.
She made his bed for him.
Ils leur ont donné un livre.
They gave them a book.
Elle nous a téléphoné hier soir.
She phoned us last night.
Nous t'avons appellé hier soir.
We called you last night.
y
there (placed immediately before the verb) (used instead of repeating a place already mentioned)
Est-ce que tu es déjà allé à Paris? Oui, j'y suis déjà allé deux fois.
Have you already been to Paris? Yes, I have already been there twice.
y
it (can also replace an indirect object introduced by à)
Est-ce que Jaques s'intéresse à la musique? Oui, il s'y intéresse beaucoup.
Is Jaques interested in music? Yes he is interested in it a lot.
Est-ce que tu as pensé à acheter un nouveau maillot? Oui, j'y ai pensé.
Have you thought about buying a new shirt? Yes, I have thought about it.
en
some, any (used instead of repeating nouns that have du, de la, de l', des, de or d' in front of them)
Est-ce que vous avez besoin de nourriture? Oui, nous en avons besoin.
Do you need any food? Yes, we need some.
en
one, of it, of them
Est-ce que tu as une raquette de tennis? Oui, j'en ai une.
Do you have a tennis racket? Yes I have one./Yes I do.
Combien de ballons est-ce qu'il y a? Il en a trois.
How many balls are there? There are three of them.
me, te, nous, vous
1st in order of pronouns
le, la, l', les
2nd in order of pronouns
lui, leur
3rd in order of pronouns
y
4th in order of pronouns
en
5th in order of pronouns
Il la lui vend.
He sells it to her/him.
Nous te l'offrons.
We are offering it to you.
Je l'y mets.
I'm putting it there.
Il leur en a donné.
He gave them some.
Ne (verb) pas si + adjective
Not so... + adjective
Il n'est pas si fier maintenant qu'il a perdu son sac!
He is not so proud now that he has lost his bag!
L'eau n'était pas si froid aujourd'hui et nous avons pu nous baigner.
The water was not so cold today and we were able to go swimming.
Le test n'a pas été si difficile ce matin et nous devrions réussir.
The test was not so difficult this morning and we should pass.
de
some (used instead of "des" in front of preceding plural adjectives)
Il y a de belles fleurs et de grands arbres dans le jardin.
There are some beautiful flowers and big trees in the garden.
avoir mal (au/à la/à l'/aux + noun)
to have a pain in a part of the body
J'ai mal à la tête.
I have a headache.
Nous avons mal aux yeux.
Our eyes hurt.
Il a mal au genou.
His knee hurts.
Tu avais mal à l'oreille.
Your ear was hurting./You had an earache. (as a description in the past)
se faire mal (au/à la/à l'/aux + noun)
to hurt one's part of the body
Elle s'est fait mal à la jambe.
She has hurt her leg.
Tu t'es fait mal au pied.
You have hurt your foot.
Il s'est fait mal aux dents.
He hurt his teeth.
Il s'était fait mal au dos.
He has hurt his back. (as a description in the past)
se casser (le/la/l'/les + noun)
to break one's part of the body
Tu te casses le genou.
You break your knee.
Elle se casse la jambe.
She breaks her leg.
Elle s'est cassé la jambe et il s'est cassé le pied.
She broke her leg and he broke his foot. (if there is a direct object in the perfect tense there is no agreement)
Nous nous sommes cassé le pied le même jour.
We both broke our foot on the same day. (if there is a direct object in the perfect tense there is no agreement)
se brûler (le/la/l'/les + noun)
to burn oneself
Elle se brûle le doigt.
She burns her finger.
Thomas se brûle l'épaule.
Thomas burns his shoulder.
no agreement of past participle
in the perfect tense if there is a direct object (le/la/les)
Anne s'est brûlé le doigt.
Anne burned her finger.
se couper (le/la/l'/les + noun)
to cut oneself (clean off)
Thomas se coupe le doigt.
Thomas cuts his finger (clean off)
se couper (au/à la/à l'/aux + noun)
to cut oneself (partially)
Thomas se coupe au doigt.
Thomas cuts himself on the finger.
Anne se coupe le pied.
Anne cuts her foot (clean off).
Anne se coupe au pied.
Anne cuts herself on the foot.
Elles se sont coupé à la jambe.
They have cut themselves on the leg.
petit
small (m sg)
s
what you add to most adjectives to make them masculine plural
petits
small (m pl)
e
what you add to most adjectives to make them feminine
petite
small (f sg)
es
what you add to most adjectives to make them feminine plural
petites
small (f pl)
grand
big
court
short
haut
high
excellent
excellent
méchant
naughty
meilleur
best
lourd
heavy
content
happy
laid
ugly
fort
strong
long
long (m sg)
longue
long (f sg) - exception
onne
feminine ending for masculine adjectives ending with on
bon
good (m sg)
bonne
good (f sg)
gentil
kind
gentille
kind (f sg) - exception
nothing
what you add to masculine adjectives ending in e to make them feminine
paisible
peaceful (m and f sg)
paisibles
peaceful (m and f pl)
propre
clean
sale
dirty
mince
slim
jeune
young
pauvre
poor
riche
rich
triste
sad
large
wide
autre
other
e
what you add to masculine adjectives ending in é to make them feminine
carré
square (m sg)
carrée
square (f sg)
décontracté
casual (m sg)
décontractée
casual (f sg)
ienne
feminine ending for masculine adjectives ending with ien
ancien
old (m sg)
anciens
old (m pl)
ancienne
old (f sg)
anciennes
old (f pl)
elle
feminine ending for masculine adjectives ending with el
cruel
cruel (m sg)
cruelle
cruel (f sg)
ulle
feminine ending for masculine adjectives ending with ul
nul
awful (m sg)
nulle
awful (f sg)
eille
feminine ending for masculine adjectives ending with eil
pareil
same (m sg)
pareille
same (f sg)
se
feminine ending for masculine adjectives ending with x
heureux
happy (m sg and m pl)
heureuse
happy (f sg)
heureuses
happy (f pl)
doux
soft (m sg and m pl) - exception
douce
soft (f sg) - exception
douces
soft (f pl) - exception
faux
false (m sg and m pl) - exception
fausse
false (f sg) - exception
fausses
false (f pl) - exception
roux
red haired (m sg and m pl) - exception
rousse
red haired (f sg) - exception
rousses
red haired (f pl) - exception
ère
feminine ending for masculine adjectives ending with er
premier
first (m sg)
premiers
first (m pl)
première
first (f sg)
premières
first (f pl)
ve
feminine ending for masculine adjectives ending with f
sportif
sporty (m sg)
sportifs
sporty (m pl)
sportive
sporty (f sg)
sportives
sporty (f pl)
che
feminine ending for masculine adjectives ending with c
blanc
white (m sg)
blancs
white (m pl)
blanche
white (f sg)
blanches
white (f pl)
se
feminine ending for masculine adjectives ending with s
gris
grey (m sg and m pl)
grise
grey (f sg)
grises
grey (f pl)
mauvais
bad (m sg and m pl)
mauvaise
bad (f sg)
mauvaises
bad (f pl)
bas
low (m sg) - exception
basse
low (f sg) - exception
frais
fresh (m sg) - exception
fraîche
fresh (f sg) - exception
épais
thick (m sg) - exception
épaisse
thick (f sg) - exception
gros
fat (m sg) - exception
grosse
fat (f sg) - exception
beau
beautiful (m sg not starting with a vowel) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
bel
beautiful (m sg starting with a vowel) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
beaux
beautiful (m pl) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
belle
beautiful (f sg) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
belles
beautiful (f pl) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
vieux
old (m sg not starting with a vowel) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
vieil
old (m sg starting with a vowel) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
vieux
old (m pl) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
vieille
old (f sg) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
vieilles
old (f pl) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
nouveau
new (m sg not starting with a vowel) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
nouvel
new (m sg starting with a vowel) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
nouveaux
new (m pl) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
nouvelle
new (f sg) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
nouvelles
new (f pl) - special adjective with an extra form in the masculine
joli - before
position of joli - pretty
vieux - before
position of vieux - old
jeune - before
position of jeune - young
all colours - after
position of all colours
le livre jaune
the yellow book
sportif - after
position of sportif - sporty
heureux - after
position of heureux - happy
petit - before
position of petit - small
gentil - before
position of gentil - kind
doux - after
position of doux - soft
roux - after
position of roux - red haired
bon - before
position of bon - good
cruel - after
position of cruel - cruel
grand - before
position of grand - big
nul - after
position of nul - awful
beau - before
position of beau - beautiful
pareil - after
position of pareil - same
gros - before
position of gros - fat
triste - after
position of triste - sad
large - before
position of large - wide
riche - after
position of riche - rich
meilleur - before
position of meilleur - best
mince - after
position of mince - slim
nouveau - before
position of nouveau - new
sale - after
position of sale - dirty
haut - before
position of haut - high
propre - after
position of propre - clean
mauvais - before
position of mauvais - bad
lourd - after
position of lourd - heavy
méchant - before
position of méchant - naughty
paisible - after
position of paisible - peaceful
excellent - before
position of excellent - excellent
tout - before
position of tout - all
autre - before
position of autre - other
all ordinal numbers/adjectives - before
position of all ordinal numbers/adjectives
faux - before
position of faux - false/incorrect
faux - after
position of faux - false
ancien - before
position of ancien - previous
ancien - after
position of ancien - ancient
long - before or after
position of long - long
court - before or after
position of court - short
pauvre - before or after
position of pauvre - poor