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Unit 4 Grammar

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this, these, that, those (demonstrative adjective) m
this, these, that, those (demonstrative adjective) m starting with a vowel
this, these, that, those (demonstrative adjective) f
this, these, that, those (demonstrative adjective) pl
Ce garçon est beau.
This boy is handsome.
Cette ville est propre.
This town is clean.
Cet arbre est isolé.
This tree is isolated.
Ces gens sont gentils.
These people are nice.
ce + noun-ci
this/these m
cet + noun-ci
this/these m starting with a vowel
cette + noun-ci
this/these f
ces + noun-ci
this/these pl
Ce livre-ci est en français, pas en anglais.
This book is in French, not in English.
ce + noun-là
that/those m
cet + noun-là
that/those m starting with a vowel
cette + noun-là
that/those f
ces + noun-là
that/those pl
Ces enfants-là sont vraiment gentils.
Those children are really nice.
this/it (demonstrative pronoun not referring to a specific noun)
Ceci n'est pas bien.
This is not good.
that/it (demonstrative pronoun not referring to a specific noun) (2 versions)
Ça ne fait rien.
It does not matter.
avoir (present tense) + past participle
how to make the perfect tense (used to show what happened in the past) with avoir
how to make the past participle for er verbs: remove ? from infinitive and add ?
Il a regardé la télévision hier soir.
He watched TV last night.
how to make the past participle for ir verbs: remove ? from inifinitive
Nous avons fini nos devoirs.
We have finished our homework.
how to make the past participle for re verbs: remove ? from infinitive and add ?
Tu as perdu ta montre.
You (sg) have lost your watch.
to be/past participle (irregular)
to have/past participle (irregular)
to drink/past participle (irregular)
to know (something)/past participle (irregular)
to know (someone)/past participle (irregular)
to read/past participle (irregular)
to want/past participle (irregular)
to see/past participle (irregular)
to have to/must/past participle (irregular)
to run/past participle (irregular)
to do/make/past participle (irregular)
to put/past participle (irregular)
to take/past participle (irregular)
to learn/past participle (irregular)
to understand/past participle (irregular)
to surprise/past participle (irregular)
to open/past participle (irregular)
to offer/past participle (irregular)
to say/tell/past participle (irregular)
to write/past participle (irregular)
to receive/past participle (irregular)
to hold/past participle (irregular)
to be able to/can/past participle (irregular)
to laugh/past participle (irregular)
to smile/past participle (irregular)
to believe/past participle (irregular)
se taire/tu
to be quiet/past participle (irregular) - takes être
to come/past participle (irregular) - takes être
to be born/past participle (irregular) - takes être
to die/past participle (irregular) - takes être
to rain/past participle (irregular)
être (present tense) + past participle
how to make the perfect tense for motion verbs - past participle must agree with subject
Elle est sortie.
She went out.
Nous sommes allés à la plage.
We went to the beach.
Elles sont arrivées à cinq heures du soir.
They (f) arrived at 5 pm.
to go (motion verb with être)
to come (motion verb with être)
to go in (motion verb with être)
to go out (motion verb with être)
to arrive (motion verb with être)
to leave (motion verb with être)
to go down/get off (motion verb with être)
to go up/get in (motion verb with être)
to stay (motion verb with être)
to return (motion verb with être)
to be born (motion verb with être)
to die (motion verb with être)
to fall (motion verb with être)
Michelle est arrivée chez ses amies vers huit heures et elles sont sorties en ville jusqu'à minuit.
Michelle arrived with her girlfriends at about 8 o'clock and they went out in the town until midnight.
La soirée a été super.
The evening was great.
reflexive verbs
use être in the perfect tense and agree with the subject
se coucher
to go to bed
je me suis couché(e)
I went to bed
tu t'es couché(e)
you (sg) went to bed
il s'est couché
he went to bed
elle s'est couchée
she went to bed
on s'est couché(e)(s)
one/we went to bed
nous nous sommes couché(e)s
We went to bed
vous vous êtes couché(e)(s)
You (pl) went to bed
ils se sont couchés
they (m) went to bed
elles se sont couchées
they (f) went to bed
Elle s'est couchée à dix heures du soir.
She went to bed at 10 pm.
Nous nous sommes bien amusés.
We (m) had a good time.
s'entendre bien (avec quelqu'un)
to get on well (with somebody)
se disputer avec quelqu'un
to argue with somebody
(bien) s'amuser
to have a good time
to be called
to get bored
se retrouver
to meet up
s'habituer à
to get used to
se sentir
to feel
se passer
to happen
Ça s'est bien passé.
It went well.
regular avoir
checklist step 1 for the perfect tense: Is it a ? ? verb?
jouer (j'ai joué)
to play (I played) - example of regular "avoir" verb ending in -er
perdre (tu as perdu)
to lose (you (sg) lost) - example of regular "avoir" verb ending in -re
finir (il a fini)
to finish (he finished) - example of regular "avoir" verb ending in -ir
irregular avoir
checklist step 2 for the perfect tense: Is it an ? ? verb?
prendre (j'ai pris)
to take (I took) - example of irregular "avoir" verb
boire (tu as bu)
to drink (you (sg) drank) - example of irregular "avoir" verb
mettre (il a mis)
to put (he put) - example of irregular "avoir" verb
vouloir (nous avons voulu)
to want (we wanted) - example of irregular "avoir" verb
être verb
checklist step 3 for the perfect tense:If not an avoir verb, is it an ? ??
drapers van mmt
mnemonic to remember common être verbs in perfect tense
il est tombé
he fell
elle est tombée
she fell
ils sont tombés
they (m) fell
elles sont tombées
they (f) fell
checklist step 4 for the perfect tense: is it reflexive and therefore with ??
je me suis lavé
I (m) washed myself
je me suis lavée
I (f) washed myself
tu t'es lavé
you (m sg) washed yourself
tu t'es lavée
you (f sg) washed yourself
il s'est lavé
he washed himself
elle s'est lavée
she washed herself
nous nous sommes lavés
we (m) washed ourselves
nous nous sommes lavées
we (f) washed ourselves
vous vous êtes lavé
you (m sg formal) washed yourself
vous vous êtes lavée
you (f sg formal) washed yourself
vous vous êtes lavés
you (m pl) washed yourselves
vous vous êtes lavées
you (f pl) washed yourselves
ils se sont lavés
they (m) washed themselves
elles se sont lavées
they (f) washed themselves
est-ce que/qu'est-ce que
checklist step 5 for the perfect tense: to ask a question either put a question mark at the end or precede with ?/? etc
Tu as vu mon livre?
Did you (sg) see my book? (short)
Est-ce que tu as vu mon livre?
Did you (sg) see my book? (long)
checklist step 6 for the perfect tense: for a negative sentence put ?...? around the auxiliary verb (avoir or être)
Je n'ai pas mangé.
I did not eat.
Tu n'es pas venue.
You (f sg) did not come
Tu n'es pas venu.
You (m sg) did not come.
Il ne s'est pas lavé.
He did not wash himself.
Nous ne nous sommes pas habillés.
We (m) did not get dressed.
Nous ne nous sommes pas habillées.
We (f) did not get dressed.
je n'ai pas mangé/je ne mange pas
I did not eat/I do not eat (NB note the negative perfect tense order is different to the present tense where pas comes after the main verb)
après avoir/être + past participle...
after having done something...
J'ai fait la vaisselle après avoir fini mes devoirs.
I did the washing up after having finished my homework.
Nous avons chanté une chanson après être sortis de la maison.
We sang a song after having gone out of the house. (When using être (as well as reflexive verbs) verbs - do not forget to agree the past participles).
Après s'être lavée, Marie s'est brossé les dents.
After having washed herself, Marie brushed her teeth.