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Helping behavior that does not benefit the helper.
A fairly stable evaluation of something as good or bad that makes a person think, feel, or behave positively or negatively about some person, group, or social issue.
bystander effect
One reason people fail to help strangers in distress: The larger the group a person is in, the less likely he is to help, partly because no one in the group thinks it is up to him to act.
causal attribution
An inference about what caused a person's behavior.
central route to persuasion
The process involved in attitude change when someone carefully evaluates the evidence and the arguments.
cognitive dissonance
An uncomfortable inconsistency among one's actions, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings. People attempt to reduce it by making their actions, beliefs, attitudes or feelings more consistent with one anothe
collectivistic cultures
Cultures in which people are considered fundamentally interdependent and which emphasize obligations within one's family and immediate community. See also individualistic cultures.
companionate love
An emotional state characterized by affection for those whose lives are deeply intertwined with one's own. See also romantic love.
A change in behavior in response to a request.
A change in behavior due to explicit or implicit social pressure.
dehumanization of the victim
Thinking about a potential victim in ways that make him seem inhuman (as vermin, for example, or as a mere number); this view makes aggression toward the victim more likely and less troubling to the a
A state in which an individual in a group experiences a weakened sense of personal identity and diminished self-awareness.
dispositional attributions
Explanations of someone's behavior in terms of factors internal to the person, such as traits or preferences.
fundamental attribution error
The tendency to attribute behaviors to a person's internal qualities while underestimating situational influences.
group polarization
A pattern in group discussions in which each member's attitudes become more extreme, even though the discussion draws attention to arguments that could have moderated their views.