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A pattern of thinking that occurs when a cohesive group minimizes or ignores members' differences of opinion.
halo effect
The tendency to assume that people who have one good trait also have other good traits.
The tendency of like to mate with like.
implicit theories of personality
Beliefs about what kinds of behaviors are associated with particular traits and which traits usually go together; used to develop expectations about people's behavior.
individualistic cultures
Cultures in which people are considered fundamentally independent and which value standing out by achieving private goals. See also collectivistic cultures.
informational influence
A reason for conformity based on people's desire to be correct.
mere presence effect
Changes in a person's behavior due to another person's presence.
motivated social cognition
Thinking about the social world in ways that serve an emotional need, such as when people hold beliefs that help them feel less anxious.
norm of reciprocity
The social standard that suggests that a favor must be repaid.
normative influence
A reason for conformity based on people's desire to be liked (or not appear foolish).
A change in behavior in response to an instruction or command from another person.
out-group homogeneity effect
The tendency for a member of a group (the in-group) to view members of another group (the out-group) as "all alike" or less varied than members of his or her own group.
peripheral route to persuasion
The process involved in attitude change when someone relies on superficial factors, such as the appearance or charisma of the person presenting the argument.
pluralistic ignorance
A type of misunderstanding that occurs when members of a group don't realize that the other members share their perception (often, their uncertainty about how to react to a situation). As a result, ea
A negative attitude toward another person based on that person's group membership.