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Selecting and Presenting the news

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Time Constraints
Mean the most easily avaliable stories make it onto TV/Radio. Editors have contacts that they use over again, so quickly the same kind of stories get reported
Technical Constraints
Some places are easier to get cameras, microphones and journals and these are the places top stories will tend to come from. E.g. disater s in far flung places are often ignored like racial tensions in Papa New Guinea
Stories typically come from places where organisations already have reporters or correspondents as they are cheaper to produce
Newspapers editors are more likely to publish stories that they believe will make their newspaper most popular that day Stories that are sensationalised or celebrity gossip are often popular
Bureaucratic News Values
Believe news should be simple, brief and current. And believe big news better than small news
Cultural News Values
These values should focus on important people and news should be unexpected. And Bad News is preferred to good news too
Agenda Settings
Idea that Journalists and editors control what the news agenda is. News only becomes news when editors select it as news. They make the decisions on whta angle to takr when reporting news and this affects how audiences percieve a story
Gate Keeping
Gans argues editors decide which stories are featured and how much SPACE is given to a story. Gans says its like a gate the editor opens it for some stories and closes it for others
GMG (Glasgow University Media Group)
They focused on coverage of strikers. They used content analysis of television news bulletins to look for evidence of bias. GUMG have a neo Marxist perspective
Voice Overs (GUMG findings)
GMG found these to biased and in favour of dominant class values. And terms like 'pointless strike' and 'troublemaker' were used so strikes seemed unnessary
Strike Leaders (GUMG findings)
werent interviewed nearly as frequently as the interviews with bourgeise bosses and management
Filming and Editing (GUMG findings)
GMG found that filming was biased and in favour of the police. Cameras were often placed behind police lines showing the police viewpoint
Critics on GMG
Many highly respected the reasearch done by GUMG because they've studied alot of news in great detail. However remember this research is relatively old and nowadays pluralists would argue New Media means there is more alternative reporting that is less biased
Pluralists on News Values
They believe practical constraints are more significant in influencing the content of the news than ideological bias. The values of journalists are also common values in society
Marxists on News Values
They believe the ideological influences are the most important and journalists values are part of the dominant ruling class ideology
Supersize Me (alternative voices)
Michael Moores series of highly critical films as a humorous attack on McDonald's. This is an example of alternative voices in the media
Tiananmen Square (Budget)
BBC spent so much money reporting this event in China, that when the Berlin Wall fell the following year, the BBC didn't have enough money to give it full coverage
News Management (political influence)
Refers to the way governments try to manipulate the news to show themselves in a favourable light. There is a strong link between politicians and journalists. Journalists rely on politicians for exclusives and in return politicians expect a good portrayal of themselves and their party
News Diary
Journalists pencil events in the future that they believe will be newsworthy. This means that news today was partly decided weeks ago and this is up to journalists and editors deciding who's and what's important. This partly means news is constructed
News is Constructed
Neo Marxists this as what we see on screen is the result of decisions editors and journalists make. These gatekeepers have ultimate power to decide how to construct the news
Miners Strike 1984-5
This is the strike that the GMG was investigating