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01 B - INTRO


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PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
PEOPLE, EQUIPMENT, AND PROCEDURES THAT ALLOW ACCOMPLISHING PRODUCTION GOALS. can be divided to [1] production facilities - physical equipment and it's arrangement throughout the factory, and [2] manufacturing support systems - procedures to manage production, solve problems, and create best quality products.
Production facilities
Differ depending on the product quantity to be produced: from low quantities to high quantities the layout might change from a fixed product position layout to a process or cellular layout, or to a process layout.
Job shop
A production facility for small quantities of production of highly complex and job intensive products, such as planes, space capsules, and special machinery.
Fixed position layout
The machine, a plane, a tank, stays in one place and the parts are brought towards it and assembled.
Process layout
A FLEXIBLE PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF LOW QUANTITIES. Usually used to produce parts for low production quantities. Consists of different machines: lathes, mills, in different places, with the part going from one place to another, until it is done.
Batch production
PRODUCTION OF BATCHES, usually for the medium quantity range (100 - 10,000), a production of a batch of a product, and then changing the equipment and parts to produce a different batch. Stopping production and changing tool is a disadvantage.
Cellular layout
Alternative solution to medium-range production with a soft product variety - since the extencive change of machinery is not needed between batches, the machines are arranged into cells that can give the soft qualities to the product: different paint booths to produce A CAR OF A DIFFERENT COLOR.
Product layout
Product moves along a long line with work done to it, as in an assembly line. Fit for high volumes of production.
Manufacturing support systems
PLAN AND CONTROL THE PRODUCT'S PROGRESS THROUGH THE FACTORY. Consist of the following [1] Manufacturing engineering. [2] Production planning and control. [3] Quality control.
Manufacturing engineering
DEPARTMENT RESPONSIBLE FOR PLANNING THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS - deciding what processes should be used to make the parts and assemble the products. This department is also involved in designing and ordering the machine tools and other equipment used by the operating departments to accomplish processing and assembly.
Production planning and control
DEPARTMENT WHICH SOLVES THE LOGISTICS PROBLEMS IN MANUFACTURING: orders materials and parts, schedules production, and makes sure that all the departments have the capacity to meet production schedules.
Quality control
DEPARTMENT RESPONSIBLE FOR SUFFICIENT QUALITY OF THE PRODUCTS. Be it in planning the product or planning the manufacturing process or by inspecting and correcting the processes based on the quality of the manufactured parts.
TRENDS IN MANUFACTURING
(1) lean production and Six Sigma, (2) globalization, (3) environmentally conscious manufacturing, and (4) microfabrication and nanotechnology.
Lean production
System developed by Toyota. Ideology: doing more work with fewer resources. The underlying objective is to remove the following types of waste: [1] Production of defective parts. [2] Production of more than required parts. [3] Excessive inventories. [4] Unnecessary processing steps. [5] Unnecessary movement of workers. [6] Unnecessary movement and handling of materials. [7] Workers waiting. >>> DES MoW - DEFECTIVE EXCESS STEPS MOVE WAITers