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Rubber processing and shaping
Majority of rubber is used for car tires and other parts are used for shoe souls, hoses, conveyor belts, seals, shock absorbing components, and sports equipment. Synthetic rubber, produced from petroleum products, is used for tires. Production of rubber consists of: [0] Production, [1] Compounding, [2] Mixing, [3] shaping, [4] Vulcanazing. >>> Pee CuM SHoVe:PRODUCTION, COMPOUNDING, MIXING, SHAPING, VULCANAZING
Rubber production
The rubber industry is organized into three parts: (1) rubber growing plantations produce natural rubber, (2) the petrochemical industry produces synthetic rubber, and (3) fabricators take the NR and SR and produce finished rubber goods.
Natural rubber production
TORTURE, ABUSE, AND SELECTIVE BREEDING OF INNOCENT RUBBER TREE POPULATION. The rubber is usually recovered as follows: (1) the latex is collected into tanks and diluted to half natural concentration; (2) formic or acetic or other acid is added to the solution which causes the rubber to coagulate; (3) the coagulum is then squeezed through rolls to drive off water; and (4) the resulting sheets are dried in smokehouses for several days. The resulting raw rubber is called ribbed smoked sheet. >>> BESD: BLEED, ETCH, SQUEEZE, DRY
COMBINING ADDITIVES WITH RUBBER TO INCREASE IT'S QUALITIES: The additives include vulcanizing chemicals, reinforcing fillers, extenders to reduce cost, antioxidants, coloring pigments, plasticizers to soften the rubber, and blowing agents to make foam rubber.
ADDING AND MIXING OF NON-VULCANIZING ADDITIVE TO RUBBER, the resultant, first stage product called a "Master batch", a batch mixed either on a "two roll mill", two rotating rolls that sqeeze the rubber, or on an "internal mixer", a mixer with two bladed rotors encased in a jacket. ROLLING MIXERS PRODUCE NON-VULCANIZED MASTER MIX
Shaping of rubber
Giving a shape to the rubber mix in one of the following processes: [1] Extrusion, [2] Celendering, [3] Coating, [4] Molding and casting. >>> MECh CoCk: MOLDING, EXTRUSION, CASTING,,, CALENDERING, COATING
Rubber extrusion
SCREW EXTRUDER PUSHES RUBBER THROUGH DIE - thickness control is hard due to die swell and rubber's high viscosity. VISCOUS RUBBER SWELLS LIKE HORNY'S SLUT CUNT
Rubber calendering
ROLLERS ROLL A PIECE OF RUBBER TO DESIRED THICKNESS, a process with a difficulty in thickness control with thick sheets due to die swell and rubber's viscosity.
Roller die process
Extruder pushes sheet into calendering process rolls - makes it easier to control thickness
LIQUID RUBBER COATS A PIECE OF FABRIC, either by a process of calendering, skimming - smearing rubber and solvent on a fabric and then drying the solvent out, dipping the fabric into the liquid rubber, or by spraying on rubber with a spray gu
Molding and casting
Molding processes for rubber: [1] Compression molding - most important technique: used to make tires, [2] Transfer molding, [3] Injection molding. Curing is usually achieved inside of the mold. >>> TIC: TRANSFER, INJECTION, COMPRESSION
Dip casting
DIPPING A MOLD AND CURING THE RUBBER STUCK TO It. For example making a glove or other item by dipping a mold into liquid rubber until there is enough thickness, and then curing the rubber.
MAKES RUBBER STIFF AND STRONG BY ACTIVATING CROSSLINKING YET RETAINING JUST ENOUGH ELASTICITY. At first was achieved by mixing in 8% sulfur and heating, now other chemicals are used since they expedite the process of vulcanization, chemicals like zink oxide and stearic acid. Vulcanization can be achieved by heating the molds or heating some part of a continuous process.
Steam heated pressure vessel - used for vulcanizing batches of rubber products.
Gas curing
Heated inert gas vulcanizes rubber - also used in batch production.
Continuous drum cure
CURES CONTINUOUS STREAMS OR RUBBER BY ROLLING THEM ON HOT DRUMS, used in continuous processes in addition to "high-pressure steam" curing, "hot-air tunnel" curing, and shitload processes I don't know about.
Support vehicle weight, transfer moment to ground thus propelling the vehicle forward, absorb shock and vibratio
Structure of tires
MULTIPLE FIBER-REINFORCED RUBBER LAYERS COMBINE TO FORM A STRONG AND COMPLEX RUBBER TUBE. The multitude of differently interwoven plies support the tires thread, the part that grips the road,, transfering all the massive weight through an area no bigger than a post card, pushing away water with its grooves and allowing for a smooth and comfortable ride.
Diagonal ply tire
Cords in the tire's plies run diagonal to each other.
Belted bias tire
Tire with belts reinforce the diagonal plies on the top, adding stiffness to the tire.
Radial tire
Stiff belts reinforce radial plies, the radial plies adding flexibility to the design.
Tire production process
STEPS IN MAKING A TIRE: [1] Preform the components, [2] Build the carcass and add the rubber for the sidewall and treads, [3] Mold and cure the tire. >>> CoC MiC: COMPONENTS, CARCAS, MOLD, CURE
Preforming of components
Forming the tire components: [1] Bead coil, [2] Plies, [3] Inner lining, [4] Belts, [5] Thread, [6] Sidewall: >>> PI BooB TS: PLIES, INNER_LINING,,, BELTS, BEAD_COIL,,, THREAD, SIDEWALL
Bead coils
CONTINUOUS STEEL WIRE IS RUBBER-COATED, CUT, COILED, AND THE ENDS JOINED - consist of multiple strands of high-strength steel wire. Their function is to provide a rigid support when the finished tire is mounted on the wheel rim.
REINFORCED FABRIC SHEETS - continuous fabric (textile, nylon, fiber glass, steel) is rubber coated in a calendering process and pre-cut to size and shape.
Inner lining
KEEPS THE AIR INSIDE TIRE - for tube tires, the inner liner is calendered onto the innermost ply. For tubeless tires, the liner is calendered as a two-layered laminate.
A MULTI PLY BELT, made by joining a few ply-like layers together at different angles.
EXTRUSION MACHINE POOPS OUT A CONTINUOUS THREAD, another machine cuts it to size, a wage slave preassembles it to belts.
Extruder rolls out side wall strips, wage slaves cut them to shape
Carcass creation
WAGE SLAVE FORMS RUBBER TUBE ON BUILDING DRUM, layering the plies, the belts, the sidewalls, and thread into a basic tire form.
Molding and curing the tire
HOT BLADDER INFLATES CARCASS INSIDE SIMMERING PRESS, vulcanizing rubber from inside and outside, imprinting the threads on the tire, like master branding his new slave.
Rubber products
RUBBER IS A VERSATILE PRODUCT. We use rubber for a great multitude of things: rubber belts with nylon reinforcement to give it strength, rubber hoses to water shit, foot wear soles, sports products such as pinpong blade coatings. BELTS, HOSES, SHOES, SPORTS
Thermoplastic elastomer processing
THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMRES ALLOW FASTER AND CHEAPER FORMING OF PRODUCTS, since they don't need the addition vulcanization step rubber requires, allowing them to be extruded, injection molded, blow molded, and thermoformed, in order to make shoe soles, car bumpers, wire insulation, medical tubing, conveyor belts, and film-stock.
Rubber products design considerations
Many of the design considerations for plastics apply to rubber, with a few additions: [1] Economic - compression molding with rubber is cheaper in small quatities. [2] No Drafts - rubber is flexible, thus you don't need a draft to remove it from a mold, [3] Holes - hard to make in a finished part, make them in a mold. [4] No Screw Threads - Rubber is too flexible for threads. >>> HEDS: HOLES, ECONOMIC, DRAFTS, SCREW_THREADS