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Level 24

15 A - SHAPING PROCESSES FOR POLYMER MATRIX COMPOS


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Polymer matrix composites
PARTICLES OR FIBERS REINFORCE A POLYMER MATRIX, creating quite a strong composite material, yet taking quite a bit of time to create, since [1] Composites are more complex than regular materials, [2] processing technologies have not improved for quite a bit. ANCIENT TECHNIQUES MAKE SLOW BOATS.
Fiber reinforced polymers
STRONG FIBERS REINFORCE WEAK POLYMER, creating strong and stiff materials life fiberglass, materials used in cars, planes, boats, torturing.
FRP shaping
Shaping methods for fiber reinforced polymers include: [1] Open mold processes - laying resin and fibers into form; [2] Closed mold processes - compression, transfer, injection molding; [3] Filament winding - winding resin dipped fibers over a rotating mold; [4] Pultrusion - extrusion with fibers; [5] Others. >>> COW POo: CLOSED_MOLD, OPEN_MOLD, WINDING, PULTRUSION, OTHERS
PMC starting materials
STARTING MATERIALS FOR POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES undergo processing before they are combined into a tough and strong and resilient composite material, the matrix material, such as the resin prepared separately from the reinforcer phase, such as glass or graphite fibers.
Polymer matrix
THERMOPLASTIC, THERMOSET, ELSTOMER MATRIX PROTECTS REINFORCING MATERIAL - thermosets phenolics, unsaturated polyesters and epoxies being the most common polymer matrix component, although thermoplastics and elastomers are also used.
Fiber reinforcer types
Glass, carbon, Kevlar fibers reinforce soft polymer, fiber reinforcement being the most common in PMC, the fibers available in a great multitude of forms and shapes: rovings, yarns, cloth, woven roving, mats. >>> Red-Yellow-Magenta Water Closet: ROVINGS, YARNS, MATS, WOVEN_ROVINGS, CLOTH
Roving
COLLECTION OF PARALLEL, UNTWISTED STRANDS - a lot of straight and untangled Kevlar filaments, a form of fiber reinforcement used in filament winding and pultrusion.
Yarn
Twisted collection of filaments, twisted like the strands in a rope.
Cloth
Fabric of woven yarns, like the woven fabric in your dirty underwear.
Mat
GLASS FIBER FELT HOLDS FAST SMELLY EPOXY MATRIX, a felt that can be cut to size and just filled by the matrix phase.
Woven roving
A FABRIC OF UNTWISTED FILAMENTS, often with more filaments in one direction than in other, bestowing a gift of directional stiffness to the impregnated structural member. UNTWISTED FILAMENT FABRIC ALLOWS DIRECTIONAL STRENGTH.
Combining matrix and reinforcement
COMBINING EITHER DURING FORMING OR BEFORE HAND AS PREPREGS. Matrix and reinforcement can be either combined during the forming of the part or in the form of prepregs, allowing the forming bought, of the shelve, composites.
Molding compound
Thermoset resin matrix with short and randomly dispersed fibers
Sheet molding compound
THERMOSET SHEET CONTAINING SHORT REINFORCING FIBERS, the sheet is usually poliester with fillers astalk, silica, limes stone, lined with randomly oriented, short 12[mm] to 75[mm] glass fibers, the sheet produced by rolling some reinforcer between layers of polymer, fed to it by rollers and doctor blades, a very convenient design which lends itself to shaping and cutting. CUT THERMOSET SHEET FOR A MOLDING CHARGE
Bulk molding compound
POLYMER BILLETS CONTAINING VERY SHORT REINFORCING FIBERS, the short fibers, from 2[mm] to 12[mm], allowing the shaping of the product by extrusion.
Prepregs
PREIMPRAGNATED FIBER REINFORCEMENT SHEETS, the partially cured thermoset resin ready to stick to other sheets and clean surfaces, sheets available in the form of sheets and tape, drawing their strength from the continuity and strength of the boron, carbon, kevlar, and fiberglass fibers.
Open mold processes
WAGE SLAVES LAYER UP POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE MOLDS WITH COMPOSITES, building layer upon layer on a half of a mold - it's cheaper that way: you don't need two complex shapes, yet you must keep in mind that ONLY THE SURFACE IN CONTACT WITH THE MOLD WILL HAVE GOOD SURFACE FINISH, laying the smelly epoxy or polyester sheets, thinking about how they should have studied and pushed harder in their youth while the fiberglass or carbon or kevlar fibers irritate the mucous layers of their respiratory system. Types of open mold processes: [1] Hand lay-up; [2] Spray-up; [3] Automated tape laying; [4] Bag molding. >>> SHAB: Spray, Hand, Automatic, Bag
Hand lay-up
MANUAL LAY UP OF COMPOSITE SHEETS AND POLYMER RESIN, the wage slaves layer up fiberglass layers and manually, using rollers, impregnate the reinforcer with a thermoset, such as epoxy, a slow method of production, fit for complex products and small quantities: radomes, boat hulls.
Spray up
SPRAYING RESIN AND SHORT REINFORCING FIBERS ON AN OPEN MOLD, a somewhat faster process that steel requires rolling the sprayed material into shape, creating weaker product due to short and non-continuous fibers.
Automatic tape laying
MACHINE DEPOSITS COMPOSITE TAPE ON AN OPEN MOLD, operating similar to a CNC machine, making pass after pass to build thickness and cutting of the tape at the end of each pass.
Bag molding
VACUUM BAG PRESSES DOWN COMPACTED COMPOSITE LAYERS IN AN OPEN MOLD, applying constant pressure while curing, prevented from sticking to the surface by absorbing fabric and perforated plastic.
Composite curing
ACTIVATES CROSS-LINKING IN THE THERMOSET, BINDING IT TO THE REINFORCER STAGE, a processes done at room temperature by allowing the composite part to cure on its own, or by heating up the part by the means of infrared lights or an autoclave.