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Level 36

20 C - SHEET METALWORKING: Dies, other operations,


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DIES AND PRESSES
Presses cut, punch, and blank sheet with dies.
*Dies
Dies are usually made out of tool steels and designed to cut a specific shape, the high production dies are usually referred to as "stamping dies"
Stamping die
The STAMPING DIE punches out components using a punch, a specifically shaped metal part that goes up and down, pressing on the metal sheet and squeezing it through the die, stamping die unit facilitating the movement of the ram attached punch through the strip stock via the means of bushings, guide pins, die holders, and all the shit you need to stamp sheets on an industrial scale, so basically this punching die is machinery you attach to press to get sheet metal blanks. MECHANICAL FRANKENSTEIN STAMPS METAL SHEETS.
Types of stamping dies
Stamping die differ by [I] what operations they perform: cutting, bending, drawing, and [II] Number of operations. The stamping die types are the following ones: [1] Simple die - single operation at each press stroke, [2] Compound die - two operations at single station: blanking and punching a washer, [3] Combination die - two operations in two different stations in the die: blanking two different parts, [4] Progressive die - two or more operations at two or more stations, progressively shaping the part. >>> SuC CoP: SIMPLE, COMPOUND,,, COMBINATION, PROGRESSIVE.
*Presses
Press drives the ram attached punch through metal sheet resting on the bolster plate attached die, breaking the thin and weak metal with the pure joy of mindless violence, driven forth by mechanical or hydraulic means, raping the innocent metal sheet at varying capacities and in different press frames, either gap or straight sided frames. HYDRAULIC AND MECHANICAL PRESSES RAPE SHEET IN GAP AND STRAIGHT-SIDED FRAMES.
Press capacity
Amount of force with which a press ravages a sheet
Gap frame presses
Presses with frame resembling a letter C or G, allowing easy access from the front and sometimes from the back, yet due to their design lacking rigidity when compared to straight side frame presses. There are a few varieties of gap frame presses: [1] Solid gap frame - a very pronounced C frame, [2] Adjustable bed frame - press bed adjust to accommodate different die sizes, [3] Open-back inclinable - tilts to remove stampings, [4] Press brake - press with a very wide bed. [5] Turret presses - perform sequences of operations on parts >>> BOATS: BRAKE, OPEN-BACK, ADJUSTABLE, TURRET, SOLID_GAP
Straight sided frame presses
Stronger presses with straight and solid sides, capable of exerting larger forces due to their stronger construction, their capacity, and for that matter, the capacity of all presses, usually, directly correlated with size - the bigger the press is, the more power it can apply, yet it is, generally, does it in a slower manner. STRAIGHT SIDED AND RIGID FRAMES APPLY MASSIVELY CRUSHING FORCES.
Power and drive systems
Hydraulics and mechanics power and drive presses, pushing the crushing die in a brutal execution of an innocent sheet, slowly pushing the ram with hydraulics or moving faster than lightening with mechanics, using the hydraulic systems for drawing operations with long strokes and mechanical ones for cutting and stamping and blanking operations due to their superior speed and the high force on a downward stroke, force transmitted from the mighty wheel to crush and kill and murder an innocent sheet in horrible pain. FAST MECHANICAL RABBITS LAUGH AT SLOW HYDRAULIC TURTLES.
SHEET METAL OPERATIONS NOT PERFORMED IN PRESSES
Sheet metal operations not performed in presses are the following ones: [1] Stretch forming - stretching sheet with die, [2] Roll bending - bending sheet between rolls, [3] Spinning - shaping sheet by spinning on a or between rolls, [4] High-energy forming - explosives or lightning form steel. >>> SeaR SHit: STRETCH, ROLL, SPINNING, HIGH-ENERGY
Stretch forming
Stretch and form the sheet, plastically deforming and forcing metal sheet over a die forced upon it against her will. WIDE DIE RAPES NARROW SHEET.
Roll bending
Strong rolls give shape to weak sheets and plates and tubes, granting the sacred gift of curvature to rails, tube and pressure vessel components.
Roll forming
Rolls continuously form channels, gutters, metal sliding sections, and pipes from sheety stock, forcefully bending the weaklings and breaking their will into useful components.
Spinning
Round roller shapes spinning part on a mandrel, creating in low numbers round and conical shapes such as big tubes and cones up to 5 meters in diameter, sizes too expensive for drawing operations. Spinning operations include: [1] CONVENTIONAL SPINNING - roller bends sheet over rotating mandrel without changing blank thickness. [2] SHEAR SPINNING - roller deforms and spreads blank with shear deformation over mandrel to form rocket nose cones for NASA, changing its thickness as it forms the part. [3] TUBE SPINNING - roller forms metal in a tube or on a tube formed mandrel or die. >>> Cock STool: CONVENTIONAL, SHEAR, TUBE.
High-energy-rate forming
Deadly bombs, blinding lightnings, and mighty magnets form and shape and twist weak metal into shape by the following means: [1] EXPLOSIVE FORMING - small bombs in wet water form large sheets over vacuum cavities, the charge blows up water, producing shock-waves that bend the metal into the vacuum filled cavity; [2] Elecrohydraylic forming - electric discharges produces shock-waves in water, shock-waves form part into vacuum filled cavity. [3] Electromagnetic forming - electromagnet forces tube or sheet into a die. >>> DiE Mao: DINAMITE, ELECTICITY, MAGNET
BENDING OF TUBE STOCK
Thick tubes bend easily. Tube bending can be tricky since tubes can deform in so many ways: thinning and thickening of walls or flattening of the tube's profile, therefore they are sometimes bent with a flexible mandrels inside for relatively small bending radii: $1.5D$ or without a mandrel with larger bending radii of about $3D$, and as a rule of thumb - the thinner the tube walls are, the harder it is to bend the tube, there is even a factor for it, the wall factor: $WF=\frac{D}{r}$ the ratio between tube's diameter and it's thickness. Tube bending methods are: [1] Stretch bending - push and pull, [2] Draw bending , [3] Compression bending, [4] Roll bending. >>> SaD CRock: Stetch, Draw, Compression, Roll
Stretch bending
Grippers pull and bend tube over form block.
Draw bending
Clamp secures tube to block and block rotates while drawing and bending the tube
Compression bending
Wiper shoe bends tube around form block.
Roll bending
Rolls gradually bend tube by applying force and moving between them, like a cheep whore shared between hobos.