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06 A - METALS (ferrous)


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Metals
HAVE GOOD STRUCTURAL QUALITIES: STIFFNESS, STRENGTHS, TOUGHNESS (ability to absorb energy), electrical and thermal conductivity. Can be separated into: [1] Ferrous metals - metals based on iron. [2] Non-ferrous metals - metals such as aluminium and magnesium.
Alloy
A METAL COMPRISED OF TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS, at least one of which is metallic: steel for example is iron and carbon. Main categories of alloys: [1] Solid solutions. [2] Intermediate phases
Solid solution
An alloy in which one of the metallic elements is dissolved in another to form a single phase. Two types of solid solution exist: [1] SUBSTITUTIONAL SOLID SOLUTION - the atoms of the dissolved element replace atoms of the solution element in the lattice structure of the metal. (brass=copper+zink). [2] Interstitial solid solution - the dissolved atoms are small and fit into the vacant spaces (the interstices) in the lattice structure of the solvent metal. (carbon in iron to form steel)
Phase
A homogeneous mass of material in which the grains have the same crystal lattice structure.
Intermediate phase
INTERMEDIATE PHASE IS MIXED WITH THE PRIMARY SOLID SOLUTION TO FORM A TWO-PHASE STRUCTURE. An alloy formed when the solubility limit of the base metal in the mixture is exceeded and a new phase, such as a metallic compound (e.g., Fe 3 C) or inter-metallic compound (e.g., Mg 2 Pb) is formed.
Steel
Iron with 0.02% to 2.11% carbon and other alloying elements. Can be grouped into following categories: [1] Plain carbon steels, [2] Low alloy steels, [3] Stainless steels, [4] Tool steels, [5] Specialty steels >>> PLS TS >>> PLAIN, LOW, STAINLESS, TOOL, SPECIALTY
Plain carbon steels
Steels with carbon as the principle alloying element: [1] Low carbon steels - C < 0.2% - most used steels: sheet metal parts, rail-road rails, plate steel for fabrication . [2] Medium carbon steels - 0.2%<C< 0.5%: machinery components and engine parts ( crank shafts, connecting rods). [3] High carbon steels - C > 0.5%: high strength and hardness, but can be hard to weld - springs, cutting tools, blades. >>> LOW SHEET SPINS CRANK-SHAFT AT HIGH, TEMPERED SPRING
Low alloy steels
IRON-CARBON ALLOYS WITH ADDITIONAL ELEMENTS, elements that give it superior mechanical properties - strength, hardness, hot hardness, wear resistance, toughness, properties that, quite often best achieved after heat treatments.
Steel alloying elements
ELEMENTS THAT STRENGTHEN STEEL BY SOLID SOLUTION ALLOYING. Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni - increase hardenability. Cr and Mo improve hot hardness. Vanadium inhibits grain growth during heat treatment which improves strength and toughness. >>> CoMe MeeN Vookee >>> CHROMIUM, MANGANESE, MOLYBDENUM, NICKEL, VANADIUM
High strength low alloy steels
Alloyed steels with low carbon (0.1% - 0.3%) and low alloy content ( < 3%), high weldability and mechanical properties.
Hardenability
The depth up to which a material is hardened after putting through a heat treatment process.
Stainless steel
HIGHLY ALLOYED STEEL WITH HIGH CORROSION RESISTANCE. Usually has chromium that forms a protective oxide layer, some have Nickel to increase corrosion resistance. Carbon used to strengthen material, although increased carbon levels have the effect of reducing corrosion resistance by forming Chromium Carbide and reducing levels of Cr available in the alloy. >>> ADDED ELEMENTS INCREASE MECHANICAL QUALITIES, PRICE, AND REDUCE THE EASE OF PROCESSING.
Austenitic stainless steel
MOST CORROSION RESISTANT STAINLESS STEEL WHICH HAS 18%CR AND 8%NI. Nickel makes austenite region stable at room temperature. Sometimes called 18-8 Stainless. Nonmagnetic and very ductile yet shows significant work hardening. USED TO FABRICATE CHEMICAL AND FOOD PROCESSING EQUIPMENT.
Ferritic stainless steel
Magnetic and less ductile and corrosion resistant than austenitic stainless steels. Used from kitchen knifes to jet engine components. Have 15% to 20% chromium, low carbon, and no nickel >>> MAGNETIC , RUST FREE KNIFE KILLS ENGINE.
Martensitic stainless steel
Strong hard stainless steel with higher carbon than ferritic stainless which allows it to be heat treated, yet it's not as corrosion resistant. Used for cuttlery and surgical instruments. >>> RUSTY SCALPEL CUTS HARD BONE.
Precipitation hardened stainless steel
Has high strength and corrosion resistance, used in aerospace application. Has around 17%Cr and 7%Ni. Hardened by precipitation. >>> FIERY SHUTTLE BATTLES RUST AT RE-ENTRY
Duplex stainless steel
Resistant to corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking due to an Austinite and ferrite mix in roughly rough amounts in this stainless steel. Used in heat exchangers, pumps, waste-water treatment plants >>> HEAT TRANSFERRING WASTE AND SHIT WATER PUMP STRONGLY RESISTS STRESS-CORROSION.
Tool steel
Steel that is used for industrial cutting tools, dies and molds, possesing high strength, hardness, wear resistance, and toughness under impact.
High speed tool steel
Used as cutting tools in machining processes. Formulated for high wear resistance and hot hardness. The original high-speed steels (HSS) were developed around 1900. They permitted dramatic increases in cutting speed compared to previously used tools; hence their name. The two AISI designations indicate the principal alloying element: T for tungsten and M for molybdenum. >>> {T,M} ANCIENT TUNGSTEN AND MOLYBDENUM CUT AT HIGH SPEED.
Hot working tool steel
Intended for hot-working dies in forging, extrusion, and die-casting. >>> {H} HOT DIE PUNCHES COLD SHIT.
Cold work tool steel
Die steels used for cold working operations such as sheetmetal pressworking, cold extrusion, and certain forging operations. The designation D stands for die. Closely related AISI designations are A and O. A and O stand for air-and oil-hardening.They all provide good wear resistance and low distortion. >>> {D} AIR AND OILED HARDENED DIES RESIST WEAR AND DISTORTION.
Water hardening tool steel
Have high carbon with little or no other alloying elements. They can only be hardened by fast quenching in water. They are widely used because of low cost, but they are limited to low temperature applications. Cold heading dies are a typical application. >>> {W} CHEAP QUENCHING HANDLES LOW TEMPERATURES.
Shock resistant tool steel
Intended for use in applications where high toughness is required, as in many sheetmetal shearing, punching, and bending operations. >>> {S} SHOCKED SHOCKER SHEARS THIN SHEETS.
Mold steel
Used to make molds for plastics and rubber >>> {M}
Speciality steel
Steels with unique processing characteristics. [1] MARRAGING STEELS - low carbon alloys with nickel and other elements which are precipitation strengthened and can reach UTS of 2000MPa with 10% elongation. - used for missiles, machinery, dies. [2] FREE-MACHINING STEELS - steels with added components, such as lead, tin, bismuth, that make their cutting easier and prolongs tool life. >>> STRONG MARRAGING KNIFE CUTS THROUGH FREE MACHINING BREAD.
Cast iron
Iron alloys with 2.1% to 4% carbon and 1% to 3% silicon.
Grey cast iron
Due to flakes of graphite in it's structure it has [1] good vibration damping and [2] internal lubricating qualities, thus making it machinable, yet it has low ductility and much higher than tensile strength. Used for automotive engine blocks and heads, motor housings, machine tool bases. >>> GRAPHITE FLAKE LUBRICATE AND DAMPEN NAUGHTY VIBRATORS.
Ductile cast iron
Has similar composition to grey cast iron, but instead of graphite flakes it has graphite spheroids, thus making it much stronger and more ductile, allowing it's use for machinery components which require high strength and good wear resistance. >>> STRONG GRAPHITE SPHERES BOUNCE RESILIENTLY
White cast iron
Hard, brittle, and highly wear resistant cast iron with cementite. Used for railway break shoes. >>> CEMENTITE RESISTS WEAR AND TEAR.
Malleable cast iron
Heat treated white cast iron(?) with up to 20% ductility. Used for pipe fittings and flanges, rail-road equipment parts. >>> HEAT TREATED WHITE CASTS BECOME DUCTILE.
Alloyed cast iron
Cast irons can be alloyed for special properties and applications. Such as increased strength, corrosion resistance, and heat resistance with high hot hardness.