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brainstem
the lowest portions of the brain, including the cerebellum, medula, and reticular formation
medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
reticular formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
thalamus
the final relay, or "switching station", for sensory information on its way to the cortex
limbic system
neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.
Cerebellum
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
Amygdala
brain area involved in fear and surprise
hypothalamus
a small area at the base of the brain that regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion, especially thirst, hunger, and sexual drive
pons
brain area involved in arousal, movement, and dreams
cerebral cortex
the layer of tissue that forms the outer layer and surface of the cerebrum; responsible for basic sensory and motor functions as well as higher mental processes in humans
glial cells
cells that support, nourish, and protect neurons
frontal lobes
areas at the top of the cerebral cortex that include sites associated with the control of movement, the processing of smell, and higher mental functions
parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
occipital lobes
portion at the back of the cerebral cortex that includes areas where vision registers in the brain
temporal lobes
portion on the sides of the cerebral cortex; includes auditory areas