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Cynicism and Skepticism


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Cynicism
The philosophical school that held that the purpose of life was to live virtuously in accord with nature, rejecting conventional desires (fame, sex, money, power), one should live simply and free from possessions.
Nature
According to the Cynics, virtue is a life lived in accord with this.
Social conventions
Cynics believed that these compromise the good life.
Askesis (Practice)
To overcome conventions and free oneself from impediments to an ethical life, Cynics advocated this over theory.
Parrhesia (freedom of speech or frankness)
Freedom for Cynics had 3 forms: eleutheria (liberty), autarkeia (self-sufficiency) and this third.
Self-sufficient
What the wise person is according to Antisthenes.
Madness
Antisthenes believed in abstention from physical pleasures and claimed to prefer this to pleasure.
The virtuous
According to Antisthenes, these are the only noble people.
Skepticism
The philosophical school that believed that there was no way to determine the truth or falsity of anything and that the search for truth was a vain endeavor; and therefore one should live steadfastly without beliefs, which would lead to ataraxia or freedom from stress and worry.
Truth or falsehood
Pyrrho held that neither sensations nor opinions tell us this.
Pyrrho
The belief that since we cannot establish either truth or falsehood, we should be unopinionated, uncommitted, and unwavering was held by which philosopher?
Taxation
Pyrrho was held in such high regard by his native city that he was appointed as high priest. As such he made all philosophers exempt from this.
Calm
Pyrrho's one follower, Timon, said that Pyrrho had reached a godlike state of what?