Level 2
Level 1

Hydrology and Fluvial Geomorphology

81 words 0 ignored

Ready to learn       Ready to review

Ignore words

Check the boxes below to ignore/unignore words, then click save at the bottom. Ignored words will never appear in any learning session.

All None

the properties of the earth's water, and especially its movement in relation to land.
Hydrological cycle
the sequence of conditions through which water passes from vapor in the atmosphere through precipitation upon land or water surfaces and ultimately back into the atmosphere as a result of evaporation and transpiration
a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network
Open System
system in which mass or energy can be lost to or gained from the environment.
Closed system
an isolated system which doesn't exchange any matter with its surroundings
an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.
Catchment area
the area from which rainfall flows into a river, lake, or reservoir.
rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to or condenses on the ground.
water that is caught and stored by vegetation
the part of rainfall or other precipitation which falls to the forest floor from the canopy.
the flow of intercepted water down the trunk or stem of a plant
Runoff/overland flow
the draining away of water from the surface of an area of land
the total volume of water flowing through a channel at any given point measured in cumecs
the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil
the passage of water, through a porous object, like rocks or soil
river discharge provided by ground water seeping into the river bed
water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock
the replenishment of an aquifer by the absorption of water
Water table
the level below which the ground is saturated with water
a place where water wells up from an underground source
the combined effects of transpiration and evaporation – loss of water from ground surfaces and vegetation into the atmosphere
Gauging station
location used by hydrologists or environmental scientists to monitor and test terrestrial bodies of water
Saturated overland flow
overland flow, due to the ground being saturated with water
Hortonian flow
the tendency of water to flow horizontally across land surfaces when rainfall has exceeded infiltration capacity
Storm hydrograph
a graph showing the rate of flow versus time past a specific point in a river, or other channel or conduit carrying flow
Lag time
the time interval from the center of mass of rainfall excess to the peak of the resulting hydrograph
Rising limb
it reflects the increase in discharge from the catchment area, in response to a rainfall event
Falling limb
it represents the withdrawal of water from the storage built up in the basin
Peak discharge
the highest point on the hydro graph when the rate of discharge is greatest
Baseflow seperation line
in a hydrograph, the line which seperates the baseflow from discharge due to rainfall, so the increase in discharge can be observed
Flashy hydrograph
a storm hydrograph with a steep rising limb and steep falling limb over a short period of time
Land use
the human use of land and the modification of the natural environment
Drainage density
The total length of all the streams and rivers in a drainage basin divided by the total area of the drainage basin
the degree to which rocks or soil allow water to fill pore spaces
the ability of a rock to absorb water and allow water to flow through cracks and joints
a body of permeable rock which can contain or transmit groundwater
Wilting point
the minimal point of soil moisture the plant requires not to wilt
Field capacity
the amount of soil moisture or water content held in the soil after excess water has drained away and the rate of downward movement has decreased
Load capacity
the total load actually transported by a river
Load competence
the maximum size of material a river can transport
the total volume of water flowing through a channel at any given point and is measured in cubic metres per second
the speed that the river is flowing at
Channel efficiency
the ability of the channel to conserve energy that may otherwise be lost to friction
Laminar flow
when fluid flows in parallel layers without any disruption between the layers
Turbulent flow
the mixing between layers of water characterised by chaotic property changes
Helicoidal flow
the corkscrew flow of water in a meander
the process of scraping or wearing something away
mechanical erosion of the earth's surface caused when materials are transported across it by running water
erosion caused by acids in rivers and waves dissolving rocks by chemical action
a type of chemical weathering in which water dissolves minerals in rocks
Hydraulic action
erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering
a process of transportation by rivers in which large material is rolled along the bed
a process of transportation by rivers in which material is picked up and carried along within the water itself
a process of transportation by rivers in which small particles bounce along the bed in a leap-frog movement
the taking up of river sediment into transport
Bed load
sediment particles transported in a stream by rolling, sliding, or tumbling along the stream bed
Suspended load
small sediment carried in the water itself, by suspension
Solute load
sediment which is carried in the water itself, by solution
an area of low-lying ground adjacent to a river, formed mainly of river sediments and subject to flooding
Braided channel
a channel that consists of a network of small channels separated by small and often temporary islands called braid bars
a small island in a braided river
a bend in a river
a deep place in a river
a rocky or shallow part of a stream or river where the water flows brokenly
River cliff
the outside bank of a river which is continually undergoing erosion.
Slip-off slope
the gentle slope on the inside of the meander where depostion has taken place
Point bar
an alluvial deposit that forms by accretion inside an expanding loop of a river
a place where water flows over a vertical drop in the course of a stream or river
Plunge pool
a deep basin excavated at the foot of a waterfall by the action of the falling water
a fast-flowing and turbulent part of the course of a river
a narrow valley between hills with steep rocky walls and a stream running through it
a steep cliff, bank, or promontory
an embankment built to prevent the overflow of a river
Cut-off/ox-bow lake
a U-shaped body of water that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off
Alluvial fan
a deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams
a triangular tract of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river due to a decrease in velocity
Bankfull discharge
height at which a flood could occur
Overbankful discharge
height at which a flood has taken place
River regime
the annual variation in the flow of a river
Recurrence interval
an estimate of the likelihood of an event, such as a flood or a river discharge flow to occur
overland flow and runoff which reaches the river quickly, causing a rapid rise in the level of the river