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Natural increase
the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths in a given region
Carrying capacity
the largest population that the resources of a given environment can support
Population momentum
tendency for population growth to continue beyond the time that replacement level fertility has been achieved
Crude birth rate
the number of births per thousand population in a given year
Fertility rate
the number of live births per 1000 women ages 15-49 years in a given year
Total fertility rate
the average number of children that would be born alive to a woman during her lifetime if she were to pass through her childbearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year.
Replacement level fertility
the level at which each generation has just enough children to replace themselves in the population
Crude death rate
the number of deaths per 1000 of the population in a given year.
Infant mortality rate
the number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1000 live births in a given year
Life expectancy
the average number of years a person may expect to live when born, assuming past trends continue
Population structure
the composition of a population, the most important elements being age and sex
Population pyramid
a bar chart, arranged vertically, showing the distribution of a population by age and sex
Sex ratio
the number of males per 100 females in a population
Dependency ratio
the ratio of the number of people under 15 and over 64 years to theose 15-64 years of age
Youth dependency ratio
the ratio of the number of people 0-14 to those 15-64 years of age
Elderly dependency ratio
the ratio of number of people 65 and over to those 15-64 years of age.
Demographic transition
the historical shift of birth and death rates from high to low levels in a population
Rate of natural change
the difference between the birth and death rate
Natural decrease
when the number of births is lower than the number of deaths
Ageing of population
a rise in the median age of a population
the use of resources to improve the quality of life in a country
Human Development Index
a measure of development that combines three important aspects of human wellbeing: life expectancy, education and income
Child mortality rate
the number of children who die before their fifth birthday per 1000 live births
Maternal mortality
the death of a woman during or shortly after pregnancy
Population ceiling
the theoretical number of people who can be supported by the available resources and and level of technology in a geographical area
Ecological footprint
a sustainability indicator, which expresses the relationship between population and the natural environment. It accounts for the use of natural resources by a country's population
the capacity of an area or ecosystem to generate an ongoing supply of resources and to absorb its wastes
Global hectare
one global hectare is equivalent to one hectare of biologically productive space with world average productivity
Carbon footprint
'the totally set of GHG (greenhouse gas) emmissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organisation, or even product
occurs when humanity's demand on nature exceeds the biosphere's supply, or regenerative capacity
Green revolution
the introduction of high yielding seeds and modern agricultural techniques in developing countries
Perennial crops
crops that do not die once harvested, existing for years before reseeding may be required
Optimum population
the one that achieves a given aim in the most satisfactory way
Economic optimum
the level of population that, through the production of goods and services, provides the highest average standard of living
when there are too few people in an area to use the resources available efficiently
when there are too many people in an area relative to the resources and the level of technology available
Optimum rhythm of growth
the level of population growth that best utilises the resources and technology available.
Population pressure
when the population per until area exceeds the carrying capacity
the pessimistic lobby who fear that population growth will outstrip resources, leading to consequences predicted by Thomas Malthus
the optimists who argue that either population growth will slow well before the limits of resources that are reached, or that the ingenuity of humankind will solve resource problems when they arise
Population policy
when a government has stated aim on an aspect of its population and it undertakes measures to achieve that aim
Pro-natalist policy
a population policy that aims to encourage more births through the use of incentives
Anti-natalist policy
a population policy designed to limit fertility through the use of both incentives and deterrents
Family planning programme
a programme to regulate the number and spacing of children in a family through the practice of contraception or other methods of birth control
the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a foetus or embryo, resulting in or caused by its death
Centrally planned economy
an economic system in which the state or workers' councils manage all aspects of the economy
Civil liberties
the rights and freedoms that protect an individual from the state.
Selective abortion
abortion performed because of the gender of the foetus or when a genetic test is performed that detects an undesireable trait
Social norms
the rules for how people should act in a given group or society