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the movement of people across a specified boundary – national and international – to establish a permanent place of residence, lasting more than one year
Internal migration
people who move within the frontiers of one country
International migration
migrants who cross an international boundary
the 'permanent' movement of people into a particular country from one or a number of other countries
the 'permanent' movements of people into a particular country from one or a number of different countries
the regional movement within a country towards a particular destination
the regional movement within a country away from a particular destination
Net migration
a positive or negative balance, calculated by the number of migrants entering an area minus the number or migrants leaving the same area
Country/region of origin
the country or region from which a migration begins
Country/region of destination
the country or region where migration is completed
Migration stream
formed by migrants sharing a common destination and origin
the reverse flow of people returning as they aren't satisfied
Push factors
negative conditions at the point of origin, which encourage or force people to move
Pull factors
positive conditions at the point of destination, which encourage people to move
Chain migration
a process that occurs when after one or a number of small pioneering migrants have led the way, others from the same rural community follow
Relay migration
a phenomenon that occurs when at different stages in a family's life cycle different people take responsibility for migration to improve the financial position of the family.
Migration typologies
classifications of migration into types – distance, duration and causes
Rural-urban migration
movement of people from the countryside to towns and cities
Step migration
occurs when the rural migrant takes steps up the urban hierarchy
the process of population decentralisation as people move from large urban areas to smaller urban settlements and rural areas
Intra-urban migration
migration within a single urban area
Inter-urban migration
migration between different urban areas
large scale
a region of concentrated economic development with advanced systems of infrastructure, resulting in high average income and relatively low unemployment
a region of low or declining economic development characterised by low incomes, high unemployment, selective outmigration and poor infrastructure
intermediate scale
Intervening obstacles
the barriers to migration between the points of origin and destination
small scale
money sent home to families by migrants working elsewhere
the absolute decline in the population of an area, frequently caused by out-migration
Family life cycle
the various stages families with children pass through over time, with corresponding changes in housing needs
Population structure
the composition of a population, the most important elements of which are age and sex
Voluntary migration
when the individual or household has a free choice about whether to move or not
Forced migration
when the individual or household has little or no choice but to move
a person who has been forced to leave his/her home because of 'a well founded fear of persecution' on account of race, religion, social group pr political opinion
Internally displaced person
someone who is a refugee, but who remains in the same country
Source area
the region from which a group of migrants originates
Receiving area
the region to which migrants move
the dispersal of a people from their original homeland
Multiplier effect
where an increase in the money supply in a region sets off an upward spiral of development as this money circulates in the economy
the identification of individuals with particular ethnic groups
Racial assimilation
the gradual process of integration into the mainstream community. The process has three main strands – economic, social, and political.
Ethnic villages
to a greater or lesser extent show clear evidence of the groups residing within their areas in terms of shops, places of worship, schools, and other services
Labour migration
migration from one country to another when the primary purpose is to seek employment
a situation where people are working less than they would like to in order to earn a reasonable living
Mass migration
the migration of a large group of people from one geographical area to another
Guest worker
a foreigner who is permitted to work in a country on a temporary basis; for example, a farm labourer.
assembly plants in Mexico, especially along the US boarder, to which foreign material and parts are shipped and from which the finished products are returned to the original market
to become integrated into mainstream society
a type of case study that focuses upon the cultural patterns that develop within a group
Time-space distanciation
the stretching of social systems across space and time
Migrant culture
attitudes and values of a particular society to the process of migration
Receiving area
the region to which migrants movement