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Hydrology and Fluvial Geomorphology ~ REVERSED

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the properties of the earth's water, and especially its movement in relation to land.
the sequence of conditions through which water passes from vapor in the atmosphere through precipitation upon land or water surfaces and ultimately back into the atmosphere as a result of evaporation and transpiration
Hydrological cycle
a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network
system in which mass or energy can be lost to or gained from the environment.
Open System
an isolated system which doesn't exchange any matter with its surroundings
Closed system
an area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.
the area from which rainfall flows into a river, lake, or reservoir.
Catchment area
rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to or condenses on the ground.
water that is caught and stored by vegetation
the part of rainfall or other precipitation which falls to the forest floor from the canopy.
the flow of intercepted water down the trunk or stem of a plant
the draining away of water from the surface of an area of land
Runoff/overland flow
the total volume of water flowing through a channel at any given point measured in cumecs
the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil
water that either falls through gaps in the vegetation or which drops from leaves, twigs or stems
the passage of water, through a porous object, like rocks or soil
river discharge provided by ground water seeping into the river bed
water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock
the replenishment of an aquifer by the absorption of water
the level below which the ground is saturated with water
Water table
a place where water wells up from an underground source
the combined effects of transpiration and evaporation – loss of water from ground surfaces and vegetation into the atmosphere
location used by hydrologists or environmental scientists to monitor and test terrestrial bodies of water
Gauging station
overland flow, due to the ground being saturated with water
Saturated overland flow
the tendency of water to flow horizontally across land surfaces when rainfall has exceeded infiltration capacity
Hortonian flow
a graph showing the rate of flow versus time past a specific point in a river, or other channel or conduit carrying flow
Storm hydrograph
the time interval from the center of mass of rainfall excess to the peak of the resulting hydrograph
Lag time
it reflects the increase in discharge from the catchment area, in response to a rainfall event
Rising limb
it represents the withdrawal of water from the storage built up in the basin
Falling limb
the highest point on the hydro graph when the rate of discharge is greatest
Peak discharge
in a hydrograph, the line which seperates the baseflow from discharge due to rainfall, so the increase in discharge can be observed
Baseflow seperation line
a storm hydrograph with a steep rising limb and steep falling limb over a short period of time
Flashy hydrograph
the human use of land and the modification of the natural environment
Land use
The total length of all the streams and rivers in a drainage basin divided by the total area of the drainage basin
Drainage density
the degree to which rocks or soil allow water to fill pore spaces
the ability of a rock to absorb water and allow water to flow through cracks and joints
a body of permeable rock which can contain or transmit groundwater
the minimal point of soil moisture the plant requires not to wilt
Wilting point
the amount of soil moisture or water content held in the soil after excess water has drained away and the rate of downward movement has decreased
Field capacity
the total load actually transported by a river
Load capacity
the maximum size of material a river can transport
Load competence
the total volume of water flowing through a channel at any given point and is measured in cubic metres per second
the speed that the river is flowing at
the ability of the channel to conserve energy that may otherwise be lost to friction
Channel efficiency
when fluid flows in parallel layers without any disruption between the layers
Laminar flow
the mixing between layers of water characterised by chaotic property changes
Turbulent flow
the corkscrew flow of water in a meander
Helicoidal flow
the process of scraping or wearing something away
mechanical erosion of the earth's surface caused when materials are transported across it by running water
erosion caused by acids in rivers and waves dissolving rocks by chemical action
a type of chemical weathering in which water dissolves minerals in rocks
erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering
Hydraulic action
a process of transportation by rivers in which large material is rolled along the bed
a process of transportation by rivers in which material is picked up and carried along within the water itself
a process of transportation by rivers in which small particles bounce along the bed in a leap-frog movement
the taking up of river sediment into transport
sediment particles transported in a stream by rolling, sliding, or tumbling along the stream bed
Bed load
small sediment carried in the water itself, by suspension
Suspended load
sediment which is carried in the water itself, by solution
Solute load
an area of low-lying ground adjacent to a river, formed mainly of river sediments and subject to flooding
a channel that consists of a network of small channels separated by small and often temporary islands called braid bars
Braided channel
a small island in a braided river
a bend in a river
a deep place in a river
a rocky or shallow part of a stream or river where the water flows brokenly
the outside bank of a river which is continually undergoing erosion.
River cliff
the gentle slope on the inside of the meander where depostion has taken place
Slip-off slope
an alluvial deposit that forms by accretion inside an expanding loop of a river
Point bar
a place where water flows over a vertical drop in the course of a stream or river
a deep basin excavated at the foot of a waterfall by the action of the falling water
Plunge pool
a fast-flowing and turbulent part of the course of a river
a narrow valley between hills with steep rocky walls and a stream running through it
a steep cliff, bank, or promontory
an embankment built to prevent the overflow of a river
a U-shaped body of water that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off
Cut-off/ox-bow lake
a deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams
Alluvial fan
a triangular tract of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river due to a decrease in velocity
height at which a flood could occur
Bankfull discharge
height at which a flood has taken place
Overbankful discharge
the annual variation in the flow of a river
River regime
an estimate of the likelihood of an event, such as a flood or a river discharge flow to occur
Recurrence interval
overland flow and runoff which reaches the river quickly, causing a rapid rise in the level of the river